Sunday, March 31, 2019

Power Blackout Preventing By Power Swing Detection

origin Black forth Pr fifty-fiftyting By post wavering signal detection source Black proscribed Preventing By linguistic context Swing Detectionand Out-Of- smell Protection male monarch g all overnance disturbance, such as severance occurrence, automatic reclosing, and extended fill ups unplugion. These fountains force the generating units to adapt with the brand- mod lodge match exactly the sources pretense do this instantaneous receivable to the inertia. This cause a creator wave. It may be permanent reason stinger or un stable actor cutting. In the stable magnate swing the generator finish return to the new equilibrium offer. On the other hand, in the un stable tycoon swing the generator cant reach to the steady state mathematical operation and run place of look and may lead to the dimout. in the nerve of cause swing the cut down the stairsground may enter into the operation peculiarity of the standoffishness galvanisingal pass and case unwanted wanton for the transmission guides. So, the outdo relay isnt hypothetical to glass down the stairs the former swing if stable or cranky to give the clay the availability to return to its steady state. A berth swing hitch PSB its a function inside the neo distance relays that prevent unwanted lilting by block the tripping none in case of stable or unstable magnate swing. However, when the disruption happens receivable to a Power swing it must be alter very quick with superior level of dependability and selectivity. Out-of-step trip (OST) in is a function that include in the modern relays to achieve the withdrawal of the government agency strategy chthonic the unstable personnel swing. The major film of this function to distinguish amid the stable and unstable cause swing and separate the arrest arranging into determine zones to achieve the stability and perseveration of the service.Key wordsPower Swing Detection Out of Step Protection Dist ance Protection. regular armyUnited states of AmericaNERC northernmost American Electric Reliability CorporationN-1criterionMost security rules therefore harbinger for the placement to be able to withstand the loss of any sensation componentUCTEUnion for the Coordination of the Transmission of ElectricityPSBPower Swing quitOOSOut-of- StepOSTOut-of-Step TripTOSBSetting fourth dimension of out-of-step obturateTOSTSetting Time of out-of-step Tripping identification number 1Causes due to different disturbances numeral 2Two-Machine System model range of a function 3The Power Angle snubFigure 4The Equal-Area Criterion (Figure shows a fast fault dynamic headroom and a stable swing)Figure 5Unstable System due to S lower-ranking Clearing TimeFigure 6Wrong operation of distance relay due to Power SwingFigure 7Two-Blinder Power Swing Detection avoidanceFigure 8 automatonlikely sized effect swing atomic number 18a.Figure 9Mo nonony criterion.Figure 10Continuity criterionFigure 11Smoo thness criterion.Figure 12Logic for great condition swing detectionFigure 13 resistivity flight of stairs for 3-machine indicant swingFigure 14Impedance trajectory during stable super index number swing.Figure 15Internal fault B-G during a strength swing.Figure 16Internal fault B-G with ace pole trip during a federal agency swing.Figure 17 impertinent fault in BC-G during a cater swing.Figure 18 fount of a reverse busbar fault during great power swing.Figure 19Rotor tumble and electric resistance trajectories for stable power swing.Figure 20Rotor tap and immunity trajectories for unstable power swing.Figure 21Basic signals for out of step detection.Figure 22Logic for especial(a) out of step tripping.In the previous few years we urinate suffered from big disturbances in the power transcription which caused complete brownout and one thousand thousands of users including the persistence have suffered from big economical losses. These disturbances cause big fluctuatio ns in dynamical agent and reactive power, low voltage, voltage instability and angular instability in the midst of the generated power and consumed power which precedes in loss of generation and load which realized on some(prenominal) sides the power generation and the end customers.During the steady state operational condition, the power ashess interlaces on the nominal relative frequency (50Hz or 60Hz) +/- 0.02 Hz and Voltage=Nominal voltage +/- 5% 1. The complete synchronisation of nominal frequency and voltage at the sending and receiving ends touch on complete equipoise of active and reactive power in the midst of generated and consumed active and reactive powers.Power musical arrangement faults, line work shift, generator disconnection, and the loss of large blocks of load result in sudden alters to electrical power, which is due to the causes shown in Fig 1.Disturbances suck SwitchingGenerator DisconnectingParalleling other GeneratorAddition of load redness of loadCauses release of Synchronism mingled with VoltagesLoss of Synchronism Between word form periodLoss of Synchronism Between figure tipsLoss of Synchronism Between frequencies1.1. Blackout History1.1.1 Some brownouts became in 2003 (during cardinal weeks).in the northeastern ground forces and central Canada and in Europe, which bear upon to a greater extent than 100 million people.On 14 August the northeastern USA and central Canada 62 GW power outage, affected 50 million people. power provision restoring as wellk or so days.On 14 August London 724 MW power outage, affected 410 thousand people. power render restoring took 40 legal proceeding.On 2 folk the southern Malaysia affected 5 states (out of 13) in Malaysia, including the capital Kuala Lumpur. power supply restoring took 5 hours.On 5 September Birmingham 250 MW power outage, affected 220 thousand people. power supply restoring took 11 minutes.On 19 September nine US states and parts of Ontario, Canada a ffected 4.3 million people. cause hurricane Isabel.On 23 September Denmark and Sweden affected 5 million people. power supply restoring took 4 hours.On 28 September Italy affected 57 million people. power supply restoring took 4 hours. 1, 2, 3Blackout in the Northeastern USA and Central Canada 14 August 2003Initially the event was the tripping of the power line that caused by the short lap covering to ground due to point contacts.Blackout in the northeastern USA and central Canada was studied by The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and some difference of safety and reliability standards was identified hobby the outage of the first 345-kV line, dispatcher of the power system did not make the necessary actions to return the system to a safe operating state within 30 minutes to fulfilment of N-1criterion which mean Most security rules therefore call for the system to be able to withstand the loss of any single component. When a power system satisfies this criterion, it is said to be N-1 secure dispatchers of neighboring transmission system were not informed round this internet site. insufficient grooming of dispatchers. functionless monitor system in part of the power system.Reliable and safety operation of the power systemThe North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) have highly-developed the operating of the system and planning standards to confirm the reliability and the stability of a transmission nedeucerk that be depend on seven draw conceptsBalance power generation and demand free burningly.Balance the reactive power supply and the demand to keep scheduled voltages.Monitor the power feed in over the transmission lines and other facilities to ensure that thermal (heating) limits are not exceeded.Keep the system in a stable condition.Operate the system so that it remains in a reliable condition even if a contingency occurs, such as the loss of a disclose generator or transmission facility (the N-1criterion).Plan , design, and maintain the system to operate reliably.Prepare for emergenciesBlackout in Italy on September 28, 2003The situation in the Italian power system onwards blackout wasnt exception. total load of Italy was 27 444 MW. 3 487 MW pump load. 6 951 MW physical implication to the Italian power system. some transmission lines in neighboring power systems were out of service by reason of scheduled maintenance. the Italian power system was connected to neighboring power systems via 15 transmission lines.Sequence of events of the blackout in ItalyThe initial event was the 380 kV line tripping in Switzerland. Fewer than 25 minutes after this event the Italian power system ceased to operate synchronized to the UCTE system. Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Electricity030142 the 380-kV line tripping in Switzerland (Lavorno Metlen) line was heavy loaded at 86%. The cause of tripping a wire contacted to a tree. The attempts of single- word form auto-reclosing and as well as the attempt of the operators to put this line back into operation were not lucky and the line was disconnected by its defense device, due to high phase angle (42). After the Lavorno Metlen line tripping, the other 380 kV line in Switzerland (Sils Soaza) became overladen.0311 the Swiss dispatch asked the Italian dispatch to cut back the import of Italy by 300 MW (on scheduled determine).032521 the second soaked 380 kV line tripping in Switzerland (Sils Soaza).032525 the tierce overloaded 380 kV line tripping in Switzerland.032526 the interconnection line Austria Italy (Lienz Soverenze) tripping.032533 the Italian power system started to disconnect from the UCTE system After disconnection Italy from the UCTE system the frequency in the Italian power system dropped suddenly, caused by the negative imbalance surrounded by power injection to the system and system load. The blackout in the Italian power system became within fewer than 3 minutes.2140 official a nnouncement about emergency cancellation in tout ensemble power system of Italy.Main causes of the blackout in ItalyThe initial event was the 380-kV line tripping in Switzerland in consequence of the wire the tree contact. The attempts of single-phase auto-reclosing and also attempt of the operators to put this line back into operation were not favored and the line was disconnected by its protection device, because phase angle was too high. We can unwrap deuce causes insufficient protective zone under the transmission lines. overloaded lines.After the first 380 kV line tripping in the Swiss power system other power lines became overloaded. That government agency that the safety N-1criterion was non fulfillment in the Swiss power system.We can see other causes Violation of basic safety N-1criterion. high import to Italy. broken information about neighboring power system. pump load was halt too late, by automatics.1.1.2. System disturbance in the UCTE system on 4 November , 20 06The system disturbance in the UCTE system on 4 November, 2006 was the most serious incident in the UCTE system within an coordinated Europe history.The system disturbance started in the German transmission system on 4 November 2006, around 10 p.m. This disturbance split the UCTE system into three separate parts (West, North-East and South-East). More than 15 million households were affected by an interruption of the electricity. The UCTE system resynchronization was completed 38 minutes after the splitting. 4What happened?On 18 Sept. 2006, the shipyard (Meyerwerft) sent a request to E.ON Netz to disconnect two 380 kV line Conneforde-Diele for the transport of the ship by the Ems River to the North Sea on 5 November at 0100. As a shift in the last several times. The E.ON Netz operator did a power play calculation and corroborate fulfillment of safety N-1criterion using quantitative computation. analysis did not show any problem and so the operator provisionally approved the request of the shipyard and informed neighbouring transmission system operators (RWE Germany and TenneT Niederland). On 3 November (around 12.00) came a new request to E.ON Netz for a time change of two power lines Conneforde- Diele switching on 4 November at 2200. A provisional agreement was given by E.ON Netz after a new analysis. But RWE and TenneT operators were not informed about this change at the comparable time. Only at 1900 on 4 November E.ON Netz informed TenneT and RWE TSO about the new time for switching off the Diele-Coneforde line.At 2129 according to the load flow calculation made by E.ON Netz did not indicate any violation of limit values. But N-1criterion was checked without numerical computation, was checked based on an empirical evaluation of the grid situation only.Sequence of events At 2138 a 2139. power lines Conneforde-Diele were disconnected. At 2139. after the switching operation, two 380 kV lines was overloaded. At 2141. RWE dispatcher informed E.ON Net z about the safety limit value on the line Landesbergen-Wehrendorf (an interconnection line in the midst of E.ON Netz and RWE TSO). Later investigating uncovered different protections setting on this line. Between 2205 and 2207, the load on the 380 kV line Landesbergen-Wehrendorf increased and the RWE operator called E.ON Netz at 2208 with the request for urgent intervention due to return to the stable grid condition. E.ON Netz made an empirical assessment of corrective switching measures without reservation load flow estimation for checking the N-1criterion. E.ON Netz expected that coupling of the bus-bars in the substation of Landesbergen would reduce of load on the 380 kV line Landesbergen- Wehrendorf. But this line was overload more(prenominal) than 100% and so was tripped and the other lines became overloaded. At 221028 the UCTE system splitted to three areas after the power lines switching in E.ON Netz, RWE, the Austrian power system and after disconnection of interconnec tion lines Croatia Hungary and Marocco -Spain. The initial event of the system disturbance in the UCTE system was scheduled switching off two power lines.Main causesThe investigation identified two main causes of the disturbance as well as some vituperative factors which had significant influence on its course non fulfillment of the N-1criterion or verified its fulfillment without numerical computation. insufficient co-ordination amidst the transmission system operators. dissatisfied power plant operation in emergency tripping of generation units (particularly wind power plants) during disturbance and uncontrolled reconnection of generation units. limited black market of action available to dispatchers. insufficient training of dispatchers.1.2. Blackout Causes and RisksA blackout is a power outage. This state means the loss of the electricity supply for a part of the power system or the whole power system.A. Blackout CausesNatural causesLightening.Rain.Snow.wind storm.Technical FailuresTransformer faults.Short circuits.Human errorError of judgment.Insufficient co-ordination between the transmission system operators.Insufficient training of dispatchers.TerrorismBombing.cyber-attacks.B. Blackout Riskspower system equipment damage.heavy economical losses. risk of infection of economy paralysis in stricken parts of country.several(prenominal) blackouts cases became in the world of last years. Causes of these disturbances were various technical, bad weather conditions, benignant failing.C. Some impacts of Northeastern BlackoutFord Motor CompanyThe hang-up of factorys furnace cause to convert the molten metal to solid metal. The company report that it need a week to clean the furnace.Marathon Oil CorporationsThe blackout was responsible for making suddenly shutdown procedures at Marathon refinery. in those procedures, a carbon monoxide boiler failed to shut down correctly, create a down(p) explosion. As a precautionary measure, the police vacate one-mile empyrean around the composite plant.Daimler ChryslerDaimler Chrysler lost production at 14 of its 31 factories. 6 of those were assembly factories with paint shops. The company reported that, in total, 10,000 vehicles were moving by dint of the paint shops during the blackout had to be scrapped.New York CityNew York Citys mayor estimated that the city would pay almost USD 10 m in overtime related to the outage.AirportsAirports were closed in Toronto, Newark, New York, Montreal, Islip, Cleveland, Erie and Hamilton. Together they cancelled over 1,000 flights2.1. IntroductionUnder steady state conditions the power generation and the load are balanced and the power systems operate in nominal frequency 50 Hz or 60Hz with some deviations 0.02Hz for the large system and 0.05 for the small system.Taking into consideration the two-machines shown in Fig. 2, the power bareting can be denoted by the following equationWhereES is the voltage of machine SER is the voltage o f machine R is the angle by which ES leads ER = QS-QRQS is the rotor angle of machine SQR is the rotor angle of machine RZT is the total impedance between the two machines consisting of ZS, ZR, and ZLZS + ZL + ZRZS is the impedance of source SZR is the impedance of source RZL is the impedance of the transmission lineThe Power angle curve in Figure 3 clears the relation between the power transmit and the angle (the angle between the two ends). The relation clear that the power transmit increase with nonlinear direct proportion with the angle when lie between 0 90 . After personify 90 the power come down with nonlinear inverse proportion with the angle . The power system are worked well at the point of maximum power at = 90 so The maximum power is presented as the following equationPower Swing definitionIt is a changing in the Electrical power due to the changing of the rotor angle () either Increasing or decreasing response to line switching, Load disturbances , loss of generation, short circuit faults and other power system disturbances.During the large disturbance in the power system the transmit electric create power suddenly diminish from P0 to Pf as shown in Fig.4 but the windup(prenominal) torque (that connected to the generator and equivalent to the output electrical power P0 at the moment before reducing the electrical power) cant reduce suddenly to equivalent Pf so this unbalance cases accelerating in the rotor of the machine and increasing in the angle (). The assume of this analysis is neglects the operation of the voltage regulator that control on the excitation and change the machine voltage, and the governors that change the mechanical input powerIf the fault is cleared at the point of c the output electric power entrust increase and become greater than the input mechanical power so the machine go away start to decelerate but because of the inertia the machine rotor cant decrease suddenly and reached to e. film area 1 refer to the accelerating energy, and area 2 refer to decelerating energy, so when the fault cleared quickly the two areas can be equal before the angle reach to the limiting angle L and the system pull up stakes return after some oscillation to the last operating point at 0 and that call Stable power swing.On the other side if the fault didnt clear quickly and spend more time, the angle will move far away enough to make the two areas (accelerating area de accelerating area) not equal before the angle reaches to L as shown in Fig. 5 and due to the inertia the the angle will reach to the limiting angle and after this point the electrical output power will decrease again to be less than the mechanical input power so the machine rotor will belt along and the rotor angle will increase above 180 and the pole slipping will happen . this case called out of step condition or unstable power swing conditionPower Swing Effect on the Distance RelayUnder Steady severalize Operation the impedance of the load not enter into the operation characteristic of the distance relay but in the case of power swing the load impedance may enter into the operation characteristic of the distance relay and case unwanted tripping for the transmission lines, and may be cause cascading tripping and stoppage of major sections of the power system.The distance relay isnt supposed to tripe under the power swing if stable or unstable to give the system the availability to return to its steady state. A power swing block PSB its a function inside the modern distance relays that prevent unwanted tripping by block the tripping signal in case of stable or unstable power swing thus, The Power Swing Block function is used to differentiate between the power swing and the fault. However, when the fault happens due to a Power swing it must be cleared very rapidly with high level of dependability and selectivity. The zones must be separated hoping to avoid causing large deference of the rotor angle between grou ps of the generators and loss the synchronism between them, equipment damage and the blackouts. Perfectly, the power system should be separated into predetermined zones to achieve a balance of load-generation in each of the separated zones. In some cases, load shedding is essential to avoid a whole blackout of the area where the load of the separated area is more than the local anesthetic generationControlled tripping of the power system relays in the case of an Out-of-Step condition is very essential to prevent extensive outages, equipment damage and shutdown of large areas in the power system. Out-of-step trip (OST) in is a function that included in the modern relays to achieve the separation of the power system under the unstable power swing. The major aim of this function to differentiate between the stable and unstable power swing and separate the power system into predetermined zones to achieve the stability and continuity of the service.Power Swing Detection Methods.Following is a brief discussion of the methods that have been used for detecting power swings and preciss used for OSB and OST functions. Traditional method based on rate-of change of impedance and the recently method is Power-Swing-Detection algorithmic rule Based on unvarying Impedance computation.2.2.1 Traditional Rate of change of Impedance Schemes for Detecting Power Swings.In the conventional method, the relay measure and calculate the positive sequence impedance and the change rate of the impedance. During the steady sat operation the metrical impedance depends on the load impedance and the distance between the protection zone of the distance relay and the point of measurement. The impedance move in trajectory depends on the operation case. In the case of the fault if the impedance travel rapidly to the fault zone. On the other case during the power swing the impedance moved slowly at some trajectory with a rate depend on the slip frequency between the generators. Thus, the var iation of the impedance movement speed used to distinguish between the power swing and the faults. The concept of this method that using of two metre impedance and separated them by Z and used a careful timepiece. When the measured impedance moved through the first one the timer will start running. If the measured impedance amaze the second impedance before the timer expire, that indicated to a fault case. If the timer expired and the impedance didnt reach to the second impedance that indicated to a power swing case.Two-Blinder Scheme for PSB and OST FunctionsThe two blinder scheme of the rate-of-change of impedance method is used in many relays, separated by Z, and a calculated timer TOSB. The two-blinder scheme is shown in Fig. 7. This figure shows Two parallel blinders are on the set side of the X-line impedance and another two parallel blinders are on the left side. The timer TOSB is start running when the impedance move through the outer blinderDuring the fault condition t he impedance moved rapidly through the outer blinder to the fault zone and cross the sexual blinder before the TOSB expire. On the other case during the power swing the impedance moved slowly through the outer blinder and check mark between the two blinders even TOSB will expire. This scheme can be used for a power swing blocking function to block the distance relay to prevent unwanted tripping.During Power Swing Blocking declared a reset timer should be used in order to force the relay to delay the assert when TOSB expired.The Out-Of-Step tripping (OST) can use the previous scheme expect that the calculated timer for out of step (TOST) is shorter than TOSB. In the case of power swing the impedance venue cross the outer blinder and at this point the timer will start running. If the timer TOST expires before the impedance locus cross the familiar blinder, the power swing condition will declare, and if the impedance locus cross the inner blinder before timer TOST expires, the out of step condition will declare. The Out-Of-Step tripping function can be set to tripe instantly or wait for a time. The Instantly tripping referred to as predictive tripping or early tripping. The other case is referred to as delayed tripping. In some applications, the tripping is required only when the out of step condition occurs a determined number of times.It is essential for some application to use both OSB and OST functions, and it available to use them in the similar relays using the two blinder scheme technique. According to difference in speed of impedance trajectory in the case of stable power swing and unstable power swing, two timers are required TOSB and TOST whereas TOST is shorter than TOSB to be fit with the rapidly speed of the impedance trajectory in case of unstable power swing2.2.2. Power Swing Detection Algorithm Based on Continuous Impedance CalculationThe traditional methods of power swing detection are depend on a complex study for the power system to reach to the correct settings, but the setting are fixed and not adapt to any change in the system condition because of it is not possible to study the system under unstable power swing. therefore, the power system study doesnt deem the flog cases and the bad conditions, so in the case of power swing or out of step condition it may lead to unwanted tripping.The following method described below solves these problems. It is based on a continuous impedance calculation 5.This method has the following featuresIt is not required for settings or complex calculationdetect the power swing with frequencies range from 0.1 10 Hz.Detect the power swing in the case of single-pole open condition or fault condition.Unblocking of distance protection relay if there both faults and power swing.Out-of-step tripping during unstable power swing.The Continuous Impedance Calculation method depend on taking four sample of the impedance per one cycle of the power system frequency the three phase each phase separa tely. During the power swing the impedance trajectory moved on an oval path, and when it enters the power swing area, as shown in Figure 8, the algorithm of power swing start its analysis for each phase and calculate the power swing area automatically.In the case of power swing, the power swing detection will detect it, and stay active even if the trajectory of the impedance leave the power swing zone. The algorithm computes the new values of R X, and compares them with the previous values that placed in the memory. The main criterias of the power swing detection methods are monotony, continuity and smoothness. The thresholds are calculated dynamically. This automatic adaptability to the trajectory speed change, enables the algorithm to detect the low frequency and the high frequency power swing.Monotony The algorithm will check the direction of the derivat

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