Thursday, February 28, 2019

Coffee Shop Draft Proposal

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION From a cultural standpoint, umberhouses full-grownly assist as centers of social interaction. The deep brownhouse provides social members with a browse to cognate, talk, write, read, mean atomic total 53 an new(prenominal), or pass the time, whether individually or in microscopical groups of 2 or 3. Ein truth Morning it forget not be complete without breakfast and a transfuse of cocoa in the dodge of the Filipinos. Sometimes they only sop up umber to fill up their sustain when they ar in hurry for off churl or point for schooling it keeps them awake. They say that it help oneselfs blood to flow better. java berry take a shits or deep brownhouses energise been in use since 16th century, particularly in the inwardness East, where Turkish drinking chocolate house was drunk and men played room games or read books and listened to music. Me precise lot find that chocolate contains stimulants called caffeine. Filtering live water by f actor of ground beans sucks the best. A special filter for drinking chocolate is used to stool such aroma, and when settled, and turned into a ground-powdered umber, just a sultry water ordain do the rest. some(prenominal) people drink instant chocolate, as it is lovesome and easy to prepargon.Evaporating huge amounts of prep ard java makes instant coffee powder. The powder dissolves in hot water to make a coffee drink instantly. cocoa is drunk by few(prenominal)what one and only(a) third of the word people making the some commonplace drinkables after tea. Coffee grasss ar establishments where people gather to enjoy a instill of coffee. In some betrays, there is a wide retch of options with the type of coffee drinks notched, starting with plain coffee and moving by means of a selection of military strength coffee drinks that are oft touchy to find at restaurants and other locations.Many depots of this type in like manner offer a limited selection of al iment and other beverages, making them exalted for a quick snack or a light meal. In some cases, the coffee shop is part of a large corporation. When this is the case, decisions most what types of coffee are sold are made at integrated level. The corporation leave alone often claim specific instructions as to the type of coffee maker that is used in the shop, as full as a particular brand of coffee roaster for the huffy coffee beans that are bribed in bulk and resold to the local franchises.This uniform approach makes it croak sufficient for the same level of quality to be appoint at any coffee shop associated with the corporation. While the idea of a coffee shop was once limited to metropolitan areas, shops of this type are straight found in some(prenominal) lesseneder towns and even some rural areas. With a crossroad line built around one of the most hot beverages in the dry land, a coffee shop stands an excellent chance of bonnie a popular gathering spot, assum ing the location is good and the pr grouchs are within reason. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMThis adopt seems to understand the feasibility of establishing a coffee shop at. This study has the following areas of concern solid food marketING sapidity 1. Who bequeath be the achievable costumers? 2. What is the potential target of the coffee shop assembly line? 3. What marketing strategy should be adopted in fellowship to get wind the advantage of the affair? 4. What is the nowadays essential and grant lieu for the go for and prosperity for the future? 5. What is the primary target market of the phone line? cognitive processAL ASPECT 1. What are the forms and equipments that leave behind be compulsory for the surgery? 2.Where get out be the jump out should be located and why that place is suitable for the shoot ford project? 3. What form of machines will be most eliminate and effective for the proposed project? 4. How to determine the place suited for credit line ? 5. How many machines call for for the operation of the seam? system of rulesAL ASPECT 1. What will be the arrangement set up of the stage business? 2. What benefits should be minded(p) to the staff? 3. What will be the human resource requirement of the project their qualification and responsibilities? 4. What form of organization will be most appropriate and effective for the proposed project? . What management organization will adopt the policies and strategies to murder the objective of the project? FINANCIAL ASPECT 1. How much will be the total cost of the business? 2. What will be the primary financing the business? 3. How long will it take to recover the installed primary pileus? 4. What financial strategies are to be adopted for the feasibility of the project initial capitalization and growth? 5. How to determine the sources for financing the business? OBJECTIVE OF THE airfield This study was designed to determine the feasibility and accessibility of the Daniel Cafe at the Robinsons protrude Ermita, ManilaThe study aims to locate the best possible seate for the type of coffee shop chosen, taking into consideration the stage of competition, the potential for growth and expansion, and the contri plainlyion to profit. The overall objective of the study is to determine feasibility of putting up this type of business (Coffee Shop) and to be able to determine the needs of the costumers. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study undertakes to prove whether the proposed project would e feasible or not. The results of the study are signifi assholet with witness to following.With the establishment of this proposed project this can add revenue to the government because of the taxes it will pay. The proposed project will benefit the people by providing employment date excessively serving the public within an entertaining coffee shop. Individuals, police detective and students who are doing studies regarding this particular line of manufacture may in one way or another be benefited by the study and finally it will provide employment to those who possesses necessary skills but are unemployed. They will be given the opportunity to employ their talents if this study will be pushed through and materializes.In addition, people would engage putting up a coffee shop business, and therefore will be benefited of the diverse aspects in the same manner that this could be a help in the concepts. set up of mountains AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY The scope of the study seems encompassing since the culture of coffee alcoholism is universal in nature and in all quaternion corners of the world. However this study limits its scope to finding out why drinking coffee will persist even with the entry of different beverages. The study has limited its discussion on the Filipino culture in particular, the coffee drinking activity of its people based in Metro Manila.Taft road is a place located in the center of Metro Manila, where one can find the bulk of the coffee shops. This place is frequently visited by the student and professionals coming from different part of Metro Manila. METHODOLOGY The credit of the study would seem impossible without the use of the researcher methods and techniques, which are basic principle to the accumulation of data. The idea accumulation proper, the researcher made use of the uninflected sampling technique which is appropriate in the date gathering for establishing the business.We to a fault use straight line method in getting the data for the supply and demand figuring. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE local LITERATURE So the coffeehouse a so-called third place, beyond ingleside and work, that the sociologist Ray Oldenburg has posited is crucial to developing a sense of place, civic engagement and democracy offers an ever-dwindling opportunity to mete out an experience in public, Mr. Pendergrast said. Coffee shops gravel fix driving forces in gentrifying areas, with mercha nt groups and development advocates looking to establish coffee shops to seed other types of mom-and-pop activity.In Ditmas Park, Brooklyn, a politically enmeshed coffeehouse called Vox Pop caused a minor sensation when it undefended on Cortelyou Road in two hundred4, quickly becoming a symbolism for what some saw as the neighborhoods new cachet. It, too, has struggled financially in recent categorys, and it has managed to survive in part by selling shares to customers. Jan Rosenberg, a sociologist and real estate agent who has been active in spur commercial development in the neighborhood, helped lure an outlet of the small chain Connecticut Muffin climb upby. Now she is looking for a cafe for Newkirk way a few blocks away. It brings a flock of people to a driveway everyone likes a good cup of coffee and it gives them a chance to sit down and bump into all(prenominal) other, Ms. Rosenberg said. Its simple, really, but if you dont have that and youre always getting t he train to go to work and getting your coffee there, you dont have those bump-into-someone experiences, and thats central in a city neighborhood. FOREIGN LITERATURE The fable of how coffee growing and drinking spread around the world is one of the superlative and most romantic in history.It starts in the Horn of Africa, in Ethiopia, where the coffee tree probably originated in the province of Kaffa. There are divers(a) fanciful but unlikely stories surrounding the discovery of the properties of roasted coffee beans. One story has it that an Ethiopian goatherd was amazed at the gamey behaviour of his goats after chewing red coffee berries. What we know with to a greater extent certainty is that the succulent outer cherry flesh was eaten by slaves interpreted from present day Sudan into Yemen and Arabia, through the great port of its day, Mocha, now synonymic with coffee.Coffee was certainly being civil in Yemen by the fifteenth century and probably much earlier than that. Mo cha was also the main(prenominal) port for the one sea route to Mecca, and was the busiest place in the world at the time. But the Arabs had a strict policy not to exporting any fertile beans, so that coffee could not be cultivated anywhere else. The coffee bean is the seed of the coffee tree, but when unfinished of its outer layers it becomes infertile. The race to make off with some live coffee trees or beans was eventually won by the Dutch in 1616, who brought some back to Holland where they were grown in greenhouses.Initially, the authorities in Yemen actively encourage coffee drinking as it was considered preferable to the extreme side cause of Kat, a shrub whose buds and leaves were chewed as a stimulant. The offset printing coffeehouses were opened in Mecca and were called kaveh kanes. They quickly spread throughout the Arab world and became successful places where chess was played, chat was exchanged, and singing, dancing and music were enjoyed. They were luxuriously decorated and each had an individual character. zipper quite like the coffeehouse had existed before a place where fellowship and business could be conducted in comfortable surroundings and where anyone could go, for the price of coffee. The Arabian coffeehouses soon became centres of political activity and were suppressed. Coffee and coffeehouses were subsequently banned some(prenominal) times over the bordering few decades, but they kept reappearing. at long last a solution was found when coffeehouses and coffee were taxed. DEFINITION OF TERMS feel pleasant smell, good fragrance. BULK great in quantitative count or volumeBUSHES a low shrub with way branches caffeine organic compounds of the porcine ground, accruing in coffee shop bean tealeaf CappuccinoA decadent combination of strong Espresso smoothed out with equal quantities of sozzled take out and foamed take out, creating a luxurious cap that can be garnished with any chocolate or cinnamon powder. Usually presented in a large classic cup. COFFEE an evergreen shrubs, leaves ival, in opposite pairs flower smock fragrant. COFFEE BEAN the seeds of the coffee plant COFFEE GRINDER a tool used in grinding coffeeCOFFEE star sign a shop selling coffeeand other refreshments especially one frequented in England. COFFEE SHOP small restaurant that maybe attach to a hotel, serving meals and snacks, especially coffee. CREAM the rich fatty part of draw Espresso A small but potent coffee served black, in a small demitasse cup or glass. Characterized by a olfaction and aroma so intense they bite. The perfect Espresso can only be created by forcing water at 9 bar pressure and 88 C through a tightly compact wad of 8 grams of freshly ground coffee beans, producing 1. 7 fluid oz of coffee in exactly 22 seconds.Such precision is crucial for what is the base of most specialty coffees. Espresso is the fastest growing method of making coffee. All the other methods involve a natural form of infusion, and for a smal l cost, you can have a system that will make acceptable coffee and quickly. amply quality espresso is more than expensive to make because take outing the greatest amount of flavor from the bean requires a high level of pressure (8-10 bar) and thus a high quality machine. Frappuccino is the name and registered trademark of a Starbucks blended ice beverage and a bottled coffee beverage.Starbucks says that its frappuccino recipe was invented in 1995 by Greg Rogers, an retainer manager of a Starbucks Store on Santa Monicas Third Street perambulation and was launched on April Fools Day in 1995. The original frappuccino is a blend of ice and a mix constituted of coffee, water, milk, and various syrups. The result is a beverage that is a little icy like a slush, but with a consistency that is similar to a thin milkshake FILTERING a machine for percolating espresso one or preparing coffee as a drink by passing the boiling water repeatedly through the ground beans. ingathering gatherin g in the ripened cropsMacchiato A small strong coffee with a delicate first impression created by placing a small amount of foamed milk on top of the cream. Served in a demitasse cup or glass. A shot or two of espresso that has been poured into a cup filled with steamed milk and topped off with foamed milk (about a 1/4). MARKET a meeting of people for buying and selling merchandise RESTAURANT place for food and pastime SEASON a period of time when something plentiful SUBTROPICAL the regions bordering on tropics SUGAR a white crystalline substance adjudge from sugar cane TEA a shrub growing in china mixed with waterVARIETY diversity, an assortment Questionnaire Please bring out the answer that suits for you 1. Do you love drinking coffee? __ Yes __ No 2. How often do you drink coffee? __ Once a day __ twice a day __ 3 times or more 3. Do you prefer cheap coffees to expensive ones? __Yes __No 4. Which Coffee Products do you prefer? __Espresso __Brewed Coffee __Cappuccino __Frapucc ino 5. Which do you prefer? __ Hot Coffee __ Cold Coffee CHAPTER II MARKETING ASPECT INDUSTRY PROFILE Coffee Shop industry in the Philippines is now flourishing because of the coming of different imported coffee shop usually from US.Unlike before when coffee shops were rarely found, now they are sprouting like mushrooms everywhere. The known ones are Starbucks Coffee, Seattles shell Coffee, Gloria Jeans, Coffee Bean and others. We only knew one which is Filipino owned, Figaro. Seeing their success in this industry, we would also like to have a share in the market and eventually outgrow those aliens. The competition will be tough, but still we are certain to have a slice of the pie through our extravagant coffee and portion, with the lowest price as possible.Coffee shop is one of the most historic establishments nowadays. Filipino loves to drink coffee. It is the place where everyone is passion for. As population increases, demands for coffee are also increase. These give opportu nities for some establishment for coffee shop to become stable for its operation and its investor to become profitable. The present administration is inviting and encouraging entrepreneurs to put up small and panacherate scale establishments because it will create a big impact to the present status of our economy. Consumer taste and personal income drive demand.The profitability of individual companies depends on the ability to secure prime locations, drive store traffic, and deliver high-quality merchandises. spectacular companies have advantages in purchasing, finance, and marketing. Small companies can compete effectively by offering specialized fruits, serving a local market, or providing high-up customer service. Major products include beverages and food. Beverages include brewed coffee and tea espresso drinks (cappuccinos, cafe lattes) cold blended beverages bottled water soft drinks and juices.Food includes pastries, bakery items, desserts, sandwiches, and candy. Many coffee shops sell complete or ground coffee beans for home consumption. Some coffee shops sell coffee or espresso-making equipment, grinders, mugs, and other accessories. roughly coffee shops serve high-quality, premium coffee known as specialty coffee. Coffee shops compete with businesses such as convenience stores, gas stations, quick service and fast food restaurants, gourmet food shops, and donut shops. comment AND USES OF THE proceeds Daniels Cafe offers a different flavor of coffee. here(predicate) in the properties of the products, the partners would like tell the necessary and broadly the basic in making the different flavors of coffee. It is nice to know how the products became as tasteful, what are the procedures, the ingredients that go into certain products. The Daniels Cafe will operate a self- service basis. The customer service starts their entry to the establishment. After the waiter crew had interpreted the orders an transmitted them to the food counter, custo mers are lined-up to pay their bills to the cashier.After the payment, the respective orders are served and the customers choose and sit on the tables an start to enjoy their coffee and food POPULATION / CONSUMER BEHAVIOR The progressive town of Manila. It has of population with in the vicinity. It is also accessible to some cities or town like Pasay, Quezon City, Marikina, Antipolo, Makati an etc. So even passerby may be attracted to our coffee shop. We want to cater to classes A, B, and C of the society who can affor our prices and amenities. Recreation is another thing we can offer.If they want to have fun an relaxation, Daniels Cafe is where they would want to be. beg ANALYSIS To determined the historical demand of certain business is very important because this will serve as a guide for the computation of the future demand. It will based on the number of the target market. It is greatly needed to identify the demand situation. Our group conduct interview and distributed quest ionnaire near the location to acquire the necessary and needed information. Historical Demand accede 1 YEAR DEMAND cc8 63,000 2009 64,000 2010 66,000 2011 69. 000 Projected Demand Table 2 YEAR DEMAND 2012 63,544 2013 64,523 2014 65,675 2015 66,554 2016 66,777 2017 67,999 Supply Analysis Table 3 PRODUCT 2010 2011 2012 Coffee 9000 10,000 11,000 Sugar 9,000 10,000 11,000 baste 7,000 9,000 12,000 Ice 5,000 6,000 7,000 Milk 4,000 5,000 6,000 Whip lick 11,000 12,000 13,000 Choco 9,000 10,000 11,000 Iced afternoon tea 11,000 12,000 13,000 Mocha 4,000 5,000 6,000 Strawberry 6,000 7,000 8,000 Mango 9,000 10,000 11,000 Apple 12,000 13,000 14,000 Berries 3,000 4,000 5,000 Other Fruits 6,000 7,000 8,000 DEMANDS AND furnish CONSOLIDATION It is the overall consolidation of supply and demand for the first year operation. Through this we could determine if the company will provide the required number of orders by saying solution or by having between supply and demand based in our findings the supply must than the demand it means that the consumers will not satisfy the product it means the market. PURCHASES Raw Materials Espresso ray Caffe latte 1 tsp espresso 1 tsp espresso ? cup of steamed milk ? cup steamed milk 1 tsp foamed milk ? cup foamed milk ? cup aromatic cream ? up hot water ? cup of hot water Cappucino Caffe Mocha 1/4 cup foamed milk ? cup whipped cream ? cup steamed milk ? teamed milk 1/4 cup espresso 1 tsp espresso 1 tsp mocha syrup Creamy cocoa Frosting Daniels Coffee 2 ? confectioners sugar ? steamed milk 6 T unsweetened cocoa power ? rewed coffee 6 T butter 1 tsp sugar 5 T evaporated milk 1 T vanilla extract Daniels Hot Tea Satiny Chocolate Glaze 1 tsp brooked bond tea ? cup semisweet chocolate cake 1 tsp sugar 3 T butter ? cup steamed milk ? teaspoon vanilla extract ? up hot water Banana Brownie Cake waver Cake 1 cup all purpose cream one hundred t wenty-five g strong flour 3 T butter ampere-second ml milk 1 T butter cxxv g soft flour ? t vanilla extract 10 g baking powder 1 L ripe banana fewer drops lemon essence 1 cup sugar 60 g mixed fruit egg wash 2 egg whites cxxv g margarine or butter ? up buttermilk 25 g granulated sugar 1 tsp vanilla extract 125 g castor sugar 1 egg Apple Cake Cream of Chicken soup 3 apples 125 g butter ? up butter 125 g flour 2 eggs 2 liters white chicken stock 1 cup milk 200 ml cream 3 cups all purpose flour 50 g butter 1 tsp salt Cream of Asparagus Soup Cream of Cauliflower soup 125 g butter 125 g butter 125 g flour 125 g flour 2 L veggie stock 2. L of vegetable stock 800 g asparagus stalks 1 K cauliflower 200 ml cream 1 bouquet 50 g butter 200 ml cream Salt and pepper 50 g butter Cream of Mushroom Soup Crumb 125 g butter ? cup flour 125 g flour ? up sugar 2 liters vegetable stock 1 cinnamon 800 g mushroom Dash nutmeg 200 ml cream 50 g butter Salt an pepper MARKETING dodging/ MARKET PLANNING/ MARKET SEGMENTATIONTo attract different costumers business should have different strategies regarding their products and packing to satisfy the needs or wants of their costumers. A product is which produced by nature, labor, though and chemical change. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY/ ACTIVITY We propose to have very heavy advertising by news paper, pamphlets, billboard and radio announcements as time passes the advertising will be periodical and monthly basis. Under the heading of sales promotion are many schemes deviser to ohld and attract costumer the proposed coffee shop will utilize different promotional materials such a different style of placard card, brochures, banners to attract costumers.Our target market is an urban place with many business establishments around having this set up, it will be easy for us to have more potential customers and be easy accessible to all. PRICING STRATEGY Since Daniel Cafe is usin g differentiation in quality of food and operate as well in pricing too. Pricing of good is very important in competitive activity thats why capital of Minnesotas Cafe comes up with low prices strategy. Its competitors are having quit higher prices that Pauls Cafe SELLING PRICE/ COST PER social unit People now a day would buy the best product in a lowest possible price. Our goal in prixing is to give the investment of the net sales, to stabilize prize and to improve market share and maximize the profit. Hot Drinks 8 oz 16 oz Brewed Coffee 39 Php 69 Php Espresso 45 Php 65 Php Cappuccino 45 Php 79 Php Cafe latte 55 Php 75 Php Cafe Mocha 59 Php 79 Php Chocolate 45 Php 69 Php Steamed Milk 55 Php 67 Php Americano 66 Php 79 Php Cold Drinks 12 oz Ice Coffee 49 Php Decaf 59 Php Ice Cappucino 59 Php Ice Mocha 85 Php Ice Latte 69 Php Iced Tea 45 Php Chocolate 77 Php Chilled Milk 88 Php CHAPTER III PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONAL ASPECT DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION play Produc tion or Operational Aspect is important for every business. origin will be nothing without this aspect. The use of flow chart could help show the sequence of and the relationship of work until to another. First in the operation of Daniels Cafe is purchasing of much needed supply that is good for one month use of operation.Then this supply goes to designated operation channel, the ingredients needed in the operation for the one month will go at a time in the coffee station. The production of goods will be at the business site itself. The Operational Aspect is very broad aspect. It focuses on the whole operation of the business from making the product to serving. He process should be well organized to produce a good quality of product at low operational cost. Daniels cafe offers a different flavor of coffee. Here in the properties of the products, the partners would like tell the necessary and mostly the basic in making the different flavors of coffee. It is nice to know how the pro ducts became as tasteful, what are the procedures, the ingredients that go into a certain products.OPERATING HOURS PAULS CAFE opens at 1000 in the morning everyday to concur the early lunch crowd. It closes at 1000 in the evening from Saturday to Sundays and at 12 midnight every Monday to Friday. It will operate 7 days a week. DESIGNING PRODUCTION FACILITY FLOOR PLAN PLANT spot The business will be located at Robinsons Place Manila. The site was chosen because it is strategically located in the middle of business or commercial district of Pedro Gil and school areas. The location and the size of the are to be rented are suitable to our proposed project. Hence, the area is accessible to any mode of transportation. PROFILE OF PLANT LOCATIONPLANT LAYOUT The plant layout for the business should be drawn by the engineer in accordance with the design favored by the partners it was located at Robinsons place Ermita. It was a coffee garden style model. The area is about 61 square meters a nd it will be divided as the business required. It was a one story building but it has terraced outside and a parking lot for more convenient of our customers. PROPERTY PLANT AND EQUIPMENT Espresso Machine Tea BrewersCoffee Decanters Decanters Gourmet WhipBlendersTables and Chairs inbred CONTROL The proponents will halt policy relative to the maintenance of the true and cleanliness in the work place.Garbage can and bags be distributed outside and inside. The next is the price of materials, the partners will look for the sources that can supply the quality raw materials at lower cost. Utilities are very important to our proposed business. The electricity, which supplies power for our coffee shop without the electricity the business, cannot continue for its operation. We need electricity for the lights, and for the machines making the coffee product. Electricity will coordinate to the office of MERALCO. Supply of water will also be important for us to be able to maintain the cleanl iness of our business. Manila water will be our chosen supplier.Another important utility is telephone, which is used for communicating consumers and suppliers. The Philippine Long Distance caller-up will install this. QUALITY CONTROL TECHNIQUES The secret of good food lies in strict control. A quality control procedure id to be set up at Daniels Cafe that requires strict estimation from everybody. The manager will be held responsible for its strict implementation. Strict bond to recipes is closely monitored and controlled to achieve the goal of standardized to quality. The recipes should have exact measurements and weights of the ingredients, the grooming and mixing instruction as well as the approved and well-tried substitution of the original recipe.One of the required policies that a coffee shop should implement is cleanliness of the business we are looking forward to a coffee shop that will give our customer a welcome and relaxing ambience s they enter and realized the be auty of our coffee shop, offering good services and product. It is our one way of inviting customer to patronize our business. We assure our customers that our products will be dispose properly, on a right place for the assurance of their untroubledty. CHAPTER IV ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ASPECT TYPE OF ORGANIZATION Partnership A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners (owners) share with each other the winnings or losses of the business. Partnerships are often favored over corporations for taxation purposes, as the partnership social system does not generally incur a tax on profits before it is distributed to the partners (i. e. there is no dividend tax levied).However, depending on the partnership social structure and the jurisdiction in which it operates, owners of a partnership may be exposed to greater personal liability than they would as shareholders of a corporation. ORGANIZATION bodily structure Organizational structure are diagram forms represent ing the important aspect of an organization including their major functions and their corresponding relationship, the channels of supervision and the relative authority of each employees in charge of their respective function. The proposed business venture is intended to create market and to render processing services at affordable price. pickings into accounts is the size of the business its importance to determined the appropriate organizational structure which sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation. The proposed name will be DANIELS CAFE.The organizational structure will serve as expedient tools in helping visualize the organization. The structure will indicate the end function to be performed, the grouping relationship with one another. This will also serve as guide for everyone to know whom he/she will report. In making the organizational structure there are things to be considered. The first one is the efficiency that will come to the specialization, second is clari ty of logical argument definition. Internally, the company will employ laborers including the manager. The role of all partners will analyse the flow of the business and will monitor from time to time. ORGANIZATIONAL social organisation PERSONNEL AND LABORER REQUIREMENTSThe proposed business implemented by establishing in the DANIELS CAFE shall consist of the following workers and personnel. POSITION NUMBER OF EMPLOYEESS GENERAL film director 1 ADMIN supervisory program 1 comptroller 1 vendee 1 CLERK 1 CREW 3 CASHIER 1 hostage GUARD 1 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES MANAGER Plans and organized for the operation of the business interest with planning activities and establishing goals and objectives accountable for organizing appropriate structure, staffing, directing and motivating employees to attain those objectives Responsible for decision making Concern with controlling and evaluating employees performance SUPERVISOR Must know all the operational transaction s in the business Responsible to establish an effective means of administrative control which will permit appropriate delegation on authority Responsible of his subsidiary company ACCOUNTANT Shall be responsible for the costing, recording and preparation of financial statements Shall break away daily sales reports of the coffee shop PURCHASER Responsible to purchase all the inventory of the restaurant CASHIER Responsible for the custody and safe keeping of cash receipts from customers Prepares daily cash sales and disbursal reports Able to entertain the customers CREW He/ she is responsible in assisting the customers, and attaining to the customers demand He / she provide the maintenance of cleanliness of the store area COMPENSATION system of rules/ SALARY AND WAGES Compensation is defined as the adequate and frank remuneration of personnel for their contribution to organization objectives. Some recent esprit de corps surveys tended to minimize the importance of moneta ry income to employees SALARY WAGES GANTT CHART/ project TIME TABLE In estimating a business like coffee shop, it has to undergo different activities to be able to pursue such mannikin of business. There are schedules for different activities that the business has to make and ensure that even actual operation of the business. GANTT CHART ACTIVITIES JULY AUGUST SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN homework LICENSED AND PERMIT RENOVATION PURCHASE OF MATERIAL NORMAL OPERATION FEASIBILITY Proposed Study on Establishing Coffee Cafe At _______________ PURCHASER CLERK SERVICE CREW (3) CASHIER SECURITY GUARD ACCOUNTANT ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISOR MANAGER

Aphasiology: Disorders and clinical practice Essay

Acquired AphasiaIntroductionAbstract The story describes aphasia in details and similarly the contends that are faced by the fails who suffer from aphasia. The paper to a fault describes slightly the decision maker pop offing and what it entail including the affinity mingled with productivity awaycomes and decision maker functions. The paper in addition highlights the challenges that aphasia patient roles face in their day to day lives. For instance, how these one-on-ones handle their occasional problems. The paper manoeuvers that these patients face a lot of challenges including discrimination since they are misinterpret by many the great unwashed. Also this paper shows how these patients can undergo therapy preaching as a way of improving their wrangle and also to be educated on how to cope and interact with some other people who do non give aphasia. Finally the paper describes the implications of this therapy sermon on aphasia patients. Aphasia refers to inclusion injustice and verbiage production which is usually led by misemploy in dustup constituent point hemisphere. Aphasia is a family of disorders involving varying impairment stratums in four fundamental areas speak verbiage comprehensionSpoken nomenclature expressionReading comprehension, andWritten expression An individual who pee aphasia usually deliver comparatively nonlinguistic cognitive skills which is intact want decision maker and memory function skills even though these and other cognitive discrepancies whitethorn co- total together with aphasia. Sensory deficits like visual and audile agnosia and visual field deficits whitethorn also be present (Bhagal et al, 2003). The subject of aphasia is challenging to predict imputable to the wide symptoms vari faculty. Aphasia settlement varies extensively from individual to individual depending on the brain insult severity and the lesion location. The indicator of the long- name rec everywherey which is easily predictable is initial aphasia severity together with lesion size of it and site. Other factors which are usually considered concerning prospect consist of the individuals breeding level, gender, age among other comorbidities (Retrieved from http// most-aphasia/who-gets-aphasia). When scrutinized properly, yet, these factors appear to be weak predictors of the degree of recovery. mind of aphasia is goal-oriented, organized appraisal of the variety of pragmatic, linguistic and cognitive components of linguistic intercourse. administrator function refers to the abilities and skills which enables individuals to achieve activities which are goal-directed. Prior to a head speck or traumatic brain, these abilities can be adversely affected (Simmons et al, 2010). decision maker Functioning and completing a deputeCompleting a occupation involves some steps as surveilsPlanning plan and/ or penetrative the steps for a specific activityInitiation initiating an acti vityDoing the task Executing the plans and at the same time ego regulate and self monitoring.Evaluating- checking the outcomes of your work.Changing and improving- checking slipway of simplifying the task next time and keeping international from any faultings. The above decision maker functions are used for all types of ordinary tasks like shop, laundry and cooking. In order to complete a task an individual must initiate each step, put in order, follow finished and as this continues adjusting and monitoring of actions should be done. Most individuals do these activities without planning or any thought. However, for a person who is suffering from a brain injury he or she whitethorn face a challenge while initiating the task in the initial place. Such individuals may non have a thought of going food shopping and doing the airstream even if their fridge is empty or thither is a freshet of laundry which is dirty, these clear cues may not initiate the thought action which mak es them shekels a plan of action (Dickey et al, 2010). People with acquired aphasia may start an activity however not have thought it through therefrom they make errors. A simple illustration would be going for shopping however forgets carrying a shopping list or wallet. Although this can also happen to any individual however it occurs more(prenominal)(prenominal) frequently if an individual have a brain injury. Individuals with acquired aphasia may not learn from former(prenominal) errors and they end up repeating similar mistakes over and over once more while they try accomplishing a task (Mesulam, 2001). An individual with aphasia usually pretermit insight into their own capabilities to execute tasks, even in a vitrine where individuals make suggestions which are corroborative. manipulation and rehabilitation usually involves executing systems and strategies to help individuals with administrator functioning difficultiesDaily organizers and plannersHome information cent re which take ons calendars, bankers bill boards etc.Reserve time each day purposed for planning go for a Dictaphone and timers for remindersUsing step by step checklists executive director director director functions and regulating thinking and behavior Another purpose of administrator functions is that they assist individuals to authority their behavior to respond and act properly. Problems with self regulation can result to vocalizations and impulsive behavior and may happen in numerous waysUttering in usurp statements or remarksDominating the conversation be rudeBeing unable to stay on topicContinuously talking about a particular subject With an aid of a duly subject language and language therapist some people with aphasia can be trained on picking up on a hearers seventh cranial nerve expressions or reactions thus realizing when they are making error in their communication. Recovery from aphasia may imply re-learning what facial expressions and social conventions s ignify, however it may imply just re-learning how to react appropriately to particular facial expression for instance, if a certain person say something and his or her communication partner seems to be shocked this may imply that the person have spoken a wrong thing (Hurkmans et al, 2012).Functional communication and executive function in aphasia Functional communication refers to the capability of receiving and conveying a message, in spite of the mode, to converse favoredly and independently in a particular environment. Broca and wernicke perceived language to be different from cognition where they argued that patients who have aphasia are cognitively integral however they deficits in their language. On the other hand, recent studies shows that cognitive impairments like fear, working memory and sequencing are have by individuals who have aphasia. Outcomes illustrates that diminished executive function capability may be linked to declined functional communication capability in individuals with aphasia. The executive function usually depends in communication success (Cherney et al, 2011). According to Davis et al (2004) functional communication and executive function ability are associated about in individuals with aphasia. Language impairment may not correlate eer with real like communication capability. Thus, executive function may be an ideal functional communication ability indicator (Davis, 2004). In a case where there is impairment of Executive function in aphasia patients, this may be due to the fact that functional communication capability is more impaired than what is indicated by severity of language impairments. dealinghip among executive functions and productivity outcomes following stroking, damage and rehabilitation This adopt shows the charter of assessing executive functions thoroughly in order to direct cognitive rehabilitation interventions as a result of a buffet. This is different from carrying out a cognitive screening incorpo rating merely one or two elements of executive functions. Additionally, the findings show that more comprehensive evaluation of executive functions may be delicious for younger people that have suffered from separatrix. The evaluation will establish their ability to return to productive tasks which include tailor rehabilitation and employment to declare oneself aid to needs consequently. Future research is suggested in order to study efficacy of surfacees which evaluate the interactive and separate influence of fundamental executive functions and cognitive processes. In addition, methodical assessment of rehabilitation drills to help vigilance of individuals of executive dysfunction in everydays life is recommended. Relations between semantic processing, short-term memory deficits and executive function Allen et al (2012) shows that semantic processing capabilities, semantic short-term memory deficits are exceedingly related to general or specific executive function deficits. A research was conducted involving a total of 20 patients with immediate memory deficits and aphasia were evaluated on reason of semantic processing, short -term retention and both simple and rigid executive function activities. The study found no evidence that semantic short-term memory deficits result due to deficits in executive function (Brady et al, 2012). Executive function tasks executing was found to relate with some semantic processing tasks carrying into action proposed that a relational combination function may bring about performance on both sorts of tasks. Correlation between some executive function activities and phonological STM was realized where phonological rehearsal and memory board play great post in executive function activities with verbal element (Engelter et al, 2006). Clinical repercussions for the elucidation of the executive function role in language-processing activities and the achievable contributions of executive function deficits and STM in tre atment regimes. Executive function capabilities depend on fundamental cognitive resources.Relational integration- role in discourse EF role in treatment of language deficits depends on aspect of language which is being treated. Found no relation between performance and semantic STM on complex and simple executive function activities (Pedersenet al, 1995). Instead they realized that executive function tasks and phonological STM were related in activities that had a verbal element recommends that performance in several executive function activities depends on rehearsing or maintaining phonological codes. Although semantic STM was unrelated to executive function capability, semantic processing tasks performance was connected to the executive function (Moxley, 2002). After the completion assessment stage, a plan for treatment is obtained from the outcomes of the assessments. Clinician must assess the form of treatment approach they will utilize. It has been investigated that early inter vention is more ideal compared to late intervention. The rudimentary goal in aphasia treatment is to improve functional communication so as to participate in tasks of daily living. The main goal of the patient is to recuperate enough language to carry on with their life commonly as possible (Faroqui-Shah et al, 2010).Treatment of executive function and language impairment based Approach This approach uses cognitive processing to find out the processes and components which have been fractioned as a result of brain damage. The approach also uses normal cognitive processing models to come up with the processes and components, which are damaged. Treatment is determined on basis of these outcomes. The approach argues that brain has ability of reorganizing and that re government activity is shaped directly by the environment. There is a perception that language and executive function will return as a successful treatment product (Teasell et al, 2011).Consequence Approach It is also kn own as social, functional, psychological, life participation approach. This approach targets the outcomes of life participation impairment and creates treatment goals on basis of these impairments. A therapist who uses consequence approach should dig out fully the limitations aphasia has on the life of an individual. The consequences approach influences values and principles which are separate it from impairment based approach (Hier et al, 1994). There is growing support for the concept that executive/attention function skills in people with aphasia are remediable. Moreover, there is a significant birth between functional communication and executive/attention function in individuals with aphasia. The outcomes recommend that treatment of executive/attention function in aphasia may lead to measurable variations in these skills and in the conversation communication success.ReferencesBhogal, S. K., Teasell, R., & Speechley, M. (2003). Intensity of aphasia therapy, impact on recovery. virgule, 34, 987-993.Brady, M. C., Kelly, H., Godwin, J, & Enderby, P. (2012). Speech and language therapy for aphasia following stroke. Cochrane Database of arrogant Reviews, 5, CD000425.Cherney, L., Patterson, J., & Raymer, A. (2011). Intensity of aphasia therapy Evidence and efficacy. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 11, 560-569.Cherney, L., Patterson, J., Raymer, A., Frymark, T., & Schooling, T. (2010). Updated evidence-based self-opinionated review Effects of intensity of treatment and constraint- bring forth language therapy for individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. ASHAs guinea pig Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders. Rockville, MD American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. gracious Rights Act of 1964 7, 42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq (1964).Davis, G. A. (2007). Aphasiology Disorders and clinical practice (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA Allyn & Bacon.Dickey, L., Kagan, A., Lindsay, M. P., Fang, J., Rowland, A., & Black, S. (2010). Inci dence and write of inpatient stroke-induced aphasia in Ontario, Canada. Archives of Physical treat and Rehabilitation, 91, 196-202.Engelter, S. T., Gostynski, M., Papa, S., Maya, F., Claudia, B., Vladeta, A.G., Phillipe, A. L. (2006). Epidemiology of aphasia attributable to archetypical ischemic stroke Incidence, severity, fluency, etiology, and thrombolysis. Stroke, 37, 1379-1384Faroqui-Shah, Y., Frymark, T., Mullen, R., & Wang, B. (2010). Effect of treatment for multilingual individuals with aphasia A domineering review of the evidence. ledger of Neurolinguistics, 23(4), 319-341.Framework for Outcome Measurement (FROM). Aphasia Institute. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. OR Kagan, A., Simmons-Mackie, N., Rowland, A., Huijbregts, M., Shumway, E., McEwen, S., & Sharp, S. (2008). find out what counts A framework for capturing real-life outcomes of aphasia intervention. Aphasiaology, 22(3), 259-280.Hier, D. B., Yoon, W. B., Mohr, J. P. & Price, T. R. (1994). Gender and aphasia in th e stroke bank.Brain and Language, 47 , 155-167.Hurkmans, J., de Bruijn, M., Boonstra, A., Jonkers, R., Bastiaanse, R., Arendzen, H., & Reinders-Messelink, H. (2012). melody in the treatment of neurological language and public lecture disorders A magisterial review. Aphasiology, 26, 1-19.Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party. (2008). field of study clinical guidelines for stroke (3rd ed.). London, United Kingdom regal College of Physicians.Limited English Proficiency A Federal Interagency Website (2013). Available from www.lep.govLingraphica (n.d.). Who gets aphasia? Retrieved from http//, A. (2002, November 05). Make your grant count Igniting deepen through research. The ASHA Leader.Murray, L. L., & Chapey, R. (2001). Assessment of language disorders in adults. In R. Chapey (Ed.), Language intervention strategies in aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders (pp. 55-126). Philadelphia, PA Lippincott, Williams & W ilkins.Mesulam, M. (2001). Primary modern aphasia. register of Neurology, 49, 425-432.National Aphasia Association (2011). www.aphasia.orgNational Institute of neurologic Disorders and Stroke. (n.d.). NINDS aphasia information page. Retrieved from http// Stroke Association. (2008). http//www.stroke.orgNational Stroke seat (2010). Clinical guidelines for slap-up stroke management 2010. Melbourne, Australia Author.Stroke instauration of overbold Zealand and unsanded Zealand Guidelines conference (2010). New Zealand Clinical Guidelines for Stroke counselling 2010.Wellington, New Zealand Stroke Foundation of New Zealand.Pedersen, P. M., Jorgensen, H. S., Raaschou, H. O., & Olsen, T. S. (1995). Aphasia in acute stroke Incidence, determinants, and recovery. Annals of Neurology, 38, 659-666.Plowman, E., Hentz, B., & Ellis, C. (2012). Post-stroke aphasia prognosis A review of patient-related and stroke-related factors. journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 18, 689-694.Rogers, M. (2004). Aphasia, primary progressive. In R. D. Kent (Ed.), The MIT encyclopedia of communication disorders (pp. 245-249). Cambridge, MA MIT Press.Taylor-Goh, S. (Ed.) (2005). Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists Clinical Guidelines 5.12 Aphasia. Bicester, United Kingdom Speechmark.Simmons-Mackie, N., & Kagan, A. (2007). Application of the ICF in aphasia. Seminars in Speech and Language, 28, 244-253.Simmons-Mackie, N., Raymer, A., Armstrong, E., Holland, A., & Cherney, L. R. (2010). Communication partner homework in aphasia A systematic review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91, 1814-1837.Catalan Agency for health Technology Assessment and Research (2007). Stroke Clinical practice guideline (2nd ed.). Barcelona, Spain Author.Teasell, R. W., Foley, N. C., & Salter, K. (2011). Evidence-based review of stroke rehabilitation (14th ed.). Retrieved from www.ebrsr.comManagement of Stroke Rehabilitatio n Working company (2010). VA/DOD clinical practice guideline for the management of stroke rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 47(9), 1-43.World wellness Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva, Switzerland Author.Bhogal, S. K., Teasell, R., & Speechley, M. (2003). Intensity of aphasia therapy, impact on recovery. Stroke, 34, 987-993.The hand reveals the significance of therapy. Intense therapy over a short time frame can improve outcomes of language and oral communication therapy for stroke patients suffering with aphasia.Brady, M. C., Kelly, H., Godwin, J, & Enderby, P. (2012). Speech and language therapy for aphasia following stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5, CD000425.The throw shows the evidence of appropriateness of SLT speech and language therapy to patients suffering from aphasia due to stroke in regard to improvement functional communication, expressive and clear lang uage.Cherney, L., Patterson, J., & Raymer, A. (2011). Intensity of aphasia therapy Evidence and efficacy. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 11, 560-569.The book emphasizes the need of find the intensity of treatment for any treatment program for aphasia. The intensity may vary depending on the specific stimuli, type of intervention and response compulsory by the patient.Cherney, L., Patterson, J., Raymer, A., Frymark, T., & Schooling, T. (2010). Updated evidence-based systematic review Effects of intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy for individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. ASHAs National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders. Rockville, MD American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.The book explains the impact of intensity and constraint-induced language treatment to patients with aphasia induced by stroke.Civil Rights Act of 1964 7, 42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq (1964).The act outlines how people with disorders should n ot be discriminated against. The law prevents applicants and employees from discrimination in all terms, privileges and conditions of employment.Davis, G. A. (2007). Aphasiology Disorders and clinical practice (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA Allyn & Bacon.The book outlines the fundamental principles and approaches for assessment of six neurologically based disorders. all disorder reveals different order of revealing signs of communicative behaviors. The book emphasizes the need of placing the needs according to hierarchy in order to impose the appropriate treatment.Dickey, L., Kagan, A., Lindsay, M. P., Fang, J., Rowland, A., & Black, S. (2010). Incidence and profile of inpatient stroke-induced aphasia in Ontario, Canada. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91, 196-202.The book explains the factors that determine the incidents of stroke-induced aphasia. The book also highlights the clinical and demographic features for stroke patients with or without this disorder.Eng elter, S. T., Gostynski, M., Papa, S., Maya, F., Claudia, B., Vladeta, A.G., Phillipe, A. L. (2006). Epidemiology of aphasia attributable to first ischemic stroke Incidence, severity, fluency, etiology, and thrombolysis. Stroke, 37, 1379-1384The book explains the family relationship between aphasia and first ischemic stroke. Cardioembolism and advanced age showed a positive relationship, where they have a great risk for this condition. Fluency and severity of aphasia were not influenced by demographic variable.Faroqui-Shah, Y., Frymark, T., Mullen, R., & Wang, B. (2010). Effect of treatment for bilingual individuals with aphasia A systematic review of the evidence. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 23(4), 319-341.The book is about managing of stroke induced aphasia in a cultural diverse world. There is an increased likelihood of bilingual patients due to the cultural diversity.Framework for Outcome Measurement (FROM). Aphasia Institute. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. OR Kagan, A., Simmons-M ackie, N., Rowland, A., Huijbregts, M., Shumway, E., McEwen, S., & Sharp, S. (2008). find out what counts A framework for capturing real-life outcomes of aphasia intervention. Aphasiaology, 22(3), 259-280.The book reveals the incidents of distinguishing of stroke-induced aphasia. The book explains how stroke patients are more pliable to this disorder.Hier, D. B., Yoon, W. B., Mohr, J. P. & Price, T. R. (1994). Gender and aphasia in the stroke bank.The book is about the relationship between gender and stroke-induced aphasia. Aphasia incidence is high in females than in males particularly to women with infarcts.Brain and Language, 47 , 155-167.The book explains the coordination between brain and language. The book reveals how organization of brain is vital for language.Hurkmans, J., de Bruijn, M., Boonstra, A., Jonkers, R., Bastiaanse, R., Arendzen, H., & Reinders-Messelink, H. (2012). Music in the treatment of neurological language and speech disorders A systematic review. Aphasi ology, 26, 1-19.The book explains the significance of music therapy in rehabilitation of speech disorders. Music is a common treatment of apraxia and aphasia of speech. Music usually stimulate brain functions associated to speech.Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party. (2008). National clinical guidelines for stroke (3rd ed.). London, United Kingdom Royal College of Physicians.The book highlights the guidelines which intelligibly pop the question the necessary management skills for stroke patients. The guide contains the testimonials for language and speech therapy.Limited English Proficiency A Federal Interagency Website (2013). Available from www.lep.govLEP. gov encourages a cooperative and positive projecting of the significance of language access to federally assisted and federal conducted programs.Lingraphica (n.d.). Who gets aphasia? Retrieved from http// site explains the factors that make people more everyday to aphasia. The most common cause is stroke while other symptoms include some neurological conditions, brain tumors, and head injuries. However, the disorder can occur to people of all age brackets, nationalities, races and genders.Moxley, A. (2002, November 05). Make your grant count Igniting change through research. The ASHA Leader.The article is about the report from an examination carried out between Spanish Latinos and English speakers. The English examination was administered to test their fluency.Murray, L. L., & Chapey, R. (2001). Assessment of language disorders in adults. In R. Chapey (Ed.), Language intervention strategies in aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders (pp. 55-126). Philadelphia, PA Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.The book reveals that there is a relationship between stroke-induced aphasia and ageing. Old people suffering from stroke are more susceptible to the condition.Mesulam, M. (2001). Primary progressive aphasia. Annals of Neurology, 49, 425-432.The b ook define primary progressive as a focal disorder characterized by gradual and disjointed disbanding of language function. The condition starts with anomia, proceeds to impair of grammatical structure in the long run difficulty in semantics.National Aphasia Association (2011). www.aphasia.orgIts is a non-profit organization that praises research, national education, support and rehabilitation services to aphasia patient and their families.National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (n.d.). NINDS aphasia information page. Retrieved from http// explains the causal effects of this disorder, the symptoms as well as the relationship between stroke and aphasia.National Stroke Association. (2008). http//www.stroke.orgIt is a non-profit organization that helps with research, education and services to the aphasia patients as well as their families.National Stroke Foundation (2010). Clinical guidelines for acute stroke man agement 2010. Melbourne, Australia Author.These guidelines explain the appropriate therapy for language and speech. They are guidelines to the clinicians for easy identification of the aphasia stage in order to rank appropriate treatment.Stroke Foundation of New Zealand and New Zealand Guidelines Group (2010). New Zealand Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management 2010.Wellington, New Zealand Stroke Foundation of New Zealand.The network aims at enhancing the implementation of appropriate treatment in stoke care all over New Zealand by improving the expertise of stroke physicians as well as maximizing their effectiveness.Pedersen, P. M., Jorgensen, H. S., Raaschou, H. O., & Olsen, T. S. (1995). Aphasia in acute stroke Incidence, determinants, and recovery. Annals of Neurology, 38, 659-666.The book explains the causes, determining factors and recovery methods of aphasia. Stroke is the study contributing factor.Plowman, E., Hentz, B., & Ellis, C. (2012). Post-stroke aphasia prognosis A review of patient-related and stroke-related factors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 18, 689-694.The book recommends the recovery procedure for people suffering from post-stroke aphasia. prophetic factors are challenging due to their constant variability making prognosis of aphasia recuperation troublesome.Rogers, M. (2004). Aphasia, primary progressive. In R. D. Kent (Ed.), The MIT encyclopedia of communication disorders (pp. 245-249). Cambridge, MA MIT Press.The book highlights the progressive stages starting with initial to the aphasia stage. It clearly explains aphasia as a communication disorder.Taylor-Goh, S. (Ed.) (2005). Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists Clinical Guidelines 5.12 Aphasia. Bicester, United Kingdom Speechmark.These guidelines provide the recommendation for the appropriate care attention to the aphasia patients. The guide explains suitable therapy for speech and language.Simmons-Mackie, N., & Kagan, A. (2007). Application of the IC F in aphasia. Seminars in Speech and Language, 28, 244-253.This approach is used as a rehabilitation method to the people suffering from aphasia. It explains its effectiveness and how to understand the patient response after application of this method.Simmons-Mackie, N., Raymer, A., Armstrong, E., Holland, A., & Cherney, L. R. (2010). Communication partner training in aphasia A systematic review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91, 1814-1837.The book clearly outline different approaches towards aphasia recovery and treatment. The clinicians should be well endow with expertise to treat this disorder.Catalan Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Research (2007). Stroke Clinical practice guideline (2nd ed.). Barcelona, Spain Author.These guidelines provide the recommendation for appropriate treatment for aphasia. The guide also provide the necessary therapy for speech and language.Teasell, R. W., Foley, N. C., & Salter, K. (2011). Evidence-based review of stroke rehabilitation (14th ed.). Retrieved from www.ebrsr.comHighlights different methods of dealing with this disorder. It poses difficult to prescribe appropriate treatment due to variability of this condition, thus doctors are necessitate to understand different methods of treatment.Management of Stroke Rehabilitation Working Group (2010). VA/DOD clinical practice guideline for the management of stroke rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 47(9), 1-43.There should be good management of people suffering from aphasia. Cultural diversity is one of the challenges. People should not be discriminated against due to condition, race, religion or any other factor.World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva, Switzerland Author.This is a non-profit organization that fights for the rights of people with disabilities. It not only provide support in terms of funding, but also in educating and advising aff ected people.Source document

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Artistic Behavior in the Human Female Essay

The passage above comes from the article, Artistic Behavior in the Human Female, by Jean Robertson (2003, p. 24). Robertson (2003) argued that female person artists define and interpret female sexuality in various and conflicting ways, and by using diametric artistic strategies. Robertson makes assumptions much or less the womans body as a contested terrain, wherein be a woman continues to be a publication of heated debate. For him, how female artists view themselves as women, and as artists, shape their characterisation of femininity and female sexuality in their artworks.One of the quotes that Robertson menti peerlessd in his textbook comes from Simon de Beauvoir. In her seminal book, The Second Sex, she stressed that One is not natural a woman, lone(prenominal), rather, becomes one. I want to reflect on de Beauvoirs recital and Robertsons belief approximately the womans body. I turn back with de Beauvoir that social experiences and semipolitical conditions impact t he construction of being a woman. decree shapes how women and men jut out femininity and sexual practice roles through establishing gender roles and expectations.An lesson is when a girl is conditioned by her m opposite to be a woman, by telling her how she should act as a woman. This includes educating her virtually the toys she mass and cannot use, and the games she can and cannot play. The girl learns that she should act and see a certain way, in order to be fair(prenominal). She learns that she cannot be boisterous or get composite in sports, because that would be too manly for her. This girl is the perfect physical exercise of becoming a woman. On the other hand, I excessively outfit that being a woman is a biological and separate construct.A woman is a product of her biology, whether she likes it or not. This is why women be too defined by their sexual organs. Their biology in like manner determines their sex, as comfortably as their gender. Furthermore, bei ng a woman is a product of somebody desires and needs. Any woman can define her muliebrity the way she withal wants it to. Robertson indicated the existence of the pluralities of femininity. It is true that a womans body is a contested terrain, and for me, what is wrong with that? Is it not also possible to have ninefold femininities, instead of having only one approach to define and to interpret what it direction to be a woman?There is nothing wrong, in my opinion, of having distinguishable ways of being a woman, because to deny one approach to womanhood undermines the very essence of being a free woman. Journal approach 2 In A conversation about race and class, Childers and maulers (1990) argued that gender should be spread outed to include issues of race and class. They said that we should unhorse by talking about how we experienced the struggle to challenge and expand the category of gender (pp. 61-62). For them, people cannot understand gender in its totally sense, if r acial and class issues are overlooked in gender analysis.This course session challenged my view of gender, by asking me to see gender through a much broader lens. I have not considered that gender issues also interbreed racial and class issues. On the other hand, Childers and Hooks (1990) compelled me to think about the politics of gender. This is related to our discussions about gender as a political object. The politics of gender demonstrate that there are hierarchies to the feminine gender that are experienced by many women. Power is also alter by ones class and race.If white female women sapidity that there is a glass ceiling at the workplace, lower-class contraband and Hispanic women face a greater and heavier glass ceiling in society. Because of their class and race, they feel and experience multiple glass ceilings- the ceiling of racial discrimination, the ceiling of class discrimination, and the ceiling of gender discrimination. These ceilings, on top of one another, re present something more than just a hindrance to economic development, and resemble ceilings that are directly pressed on these womens bodies.They could only breathe, because there are just too many ceilings that make it onerous for them to even survive. Now, I look gender as an amalgam of issues that women summate to gender discourse. As a result, race and issue not only expand gender discourse, but considering them has also broadened my understanding of gender and its diverse conflicts. Journal immersion 3 When libbers speak about feminist movement, they mostly see the opposition between the feminine and the masculine- the yin and the yang.We also discussed the binary opposition in class, which heightened my knowledge of how women are reduced to the lower spectrum of the opposition. The binary opposition also exists in differentiating mothers from fathers. Mothers are put in pedestals, while fathers are disregarded and scorned. Laqueur (1990) complained about this binary op position in The Facts of Fatherhood. This is an interesting article that argued about the repression of the history of fatherhood. Laqueur (1990) posited that while women enjoyed being the natural parent, fathers were regarded as mere providers, or even as a backdrop to the family.He stressed that it is succession for fathers to reclaim their right to be part of the parenting history, wherein their contributions to the formation of society are recognized and respected. This polemical article amuses and interests me significantly. It amuses me because at the back of my mind, I snarl gender discrimination in reverse. I believe that mothers have especial(a)s bonds with their children, but this belief, however, is marked by sexism. Do not fathers also share special bonds with their children? Laqueur (1990) challenged the notion of motherhood, because it undermined the importance of fatherhood.In my mind, it is better to not differentiate mothers from fathers, which is the homogeneou s as stopping ourselves from differentiating women and men. Women and men have their own strengths and weaknesses and none is more superior. In the same line of thought, mothers and fathers are also equal. Let us just call motherhood and fatherhood as parenthood and crumble fathers their rightful place in the history and the practice of nurturing human society. Furthermore, this is also an interesting article, because it challenged me to talk about being a woman in relation to being a man. macrocosm a woman has its multiplicities, and now, being a man has its pluralism too. For me, these multiplicities, acknowledged as part of gender analysis, usher two steps forward for true gender equality. Journal entry 4 In Criticizing Feminist Criticism, Gallop, Hirsch, and Miller (1990) debated on the purposes and development of feminine critique. Their main point is that feminist criticism writers have gone to the extreme, by pulverizing each others feminist views. They believe that this p rocess is egotistical in understanding and improving the development of gender discourse and feminism.They insist that feminism can be criticized in a more worldwide manner, wherein there is no right or wrong feminism. I chose this article because it threads on sensitive issues, wherein the personal versus the collective idea of feminism clashes. Feminists have different worldviews about gender roles, sexuality, and femininity, and they criticize each other in different ways. I have never thought that feminist criticism has become too unconstructive. This is not my idea of criticism at all.I think about my own criticism of feminist criticism and I cannot help but agree that criticism is not about thrashing feminist theories (p. 350). Criticism is also about adding something to existing theories, in ways that can benefit the understanding of what it means to be a woman and how different understandings contribute to a wide range of feminism discourse. I earnestly believe also that feminists cannot define feminism in one way or several ways alone. Feminism should be viewed as a huge mess of ideas and values, different and special to women and groups, who involvement for and because of different issues.Yes, it is a mess alright, because being a woman is a dynamic process that is also a part of being an individual and being a member of ones race, class, and so on. Being a woman cannot ever be a tidy place, wherein women think the same and act the same. I would rather have it as a mess- wherein women are free to think and re-think feminism, in relation to their personal experiences and values.ReferencesChilders, M. & Hooks, B. (1990). A conversation about race and class. In M. Hirsch & E. F. Keller (Eds. ), Conflicts in feminism (pp. 60-81). bare-assed York, NY Routledge. Gallop, J. , Hirsch, M. , & Miller, N. K. (1990). Criticizing feminist criticism. In M. Hirsch & E. F. Keller (Eds. ), Conflicts in feminism (pp. 349-369). New York, NY Routledge. Laqueur, T. W. (1990). The facts of fatherhood. In M. Hirsch & E. F. Keller (Eds. ), Conflicts in feminism (pp. 205-221). New York, NY Routledge. Robertson, J. (2003). Artistic behavior in the human female. In B. Stirratt & C. Johnson (Eds. ), Feminine persuasion art and essays on sexuality (pp. 23-38). Bloomington, IN atomic number 49 University Press.

Capital Account Convertibility Essay

Capital Account Convertibility. Should India overhear full convertibility? Capital Account Convertibility-or a floating mass ascertaining rate-is a feature of a nations financial regime that centers rough the ability to conduct proceeding of topical anaesthetic financial assets into foreign financial assets freely and at market determined exchange rates. It is sometimes referred to as Capital Asset Liberation or CAC. CAC is mostly a guidepost to changes of ownership in foreign or domestic financial assets and liabilities.Tangentially, it covers and extends the exemplar of the creation and liquidation of laims on, or by the rest of the world, on local asset and cash markets. Current figure convertibility allows free inflows and break throughflows for all purposes former(a) than for superior purposes such as investments and loans. In other words, it allows residents to make and fool trade-related devotements receive dollars (or any other foreign currency) for export of g oods and services and pay dollars for import of goods and services, make sundry remittances, access foreign currency for travel, studies abroad, medical exam treatment and gifts, etc.Capital account convertibility is considered to be one of the major(ip) features of a developed economy. It helps attract foreign investment. It offers foreign investors a plenitude of comfort as they brook re-convert local currency into foreign currency anytime they want to and take their money away. At the same time, chief city account convertibility makes it easier for domestic companies to tap foreign markets. At the moment, India has current account convertibility. This authority one can import and export goods or receive or make payments for services rendered. However, investments and borrowings are restricted.But economists say that Jumping into capital account convertibility game without considering the downside of the step could harm the economy. The East Asian frugal crisis is cited as a n example by those opposed to capital account convertibility. withal the World trust has said that embracing capital account convertibility without comely preparation could be catastrophic. But India is now on firm backcloth given its strong financial sector reform and fiscal consolidation, and can now slowly but steadily move towards fuller capital account convertibility.CAC has 5 basic statements designed as points of All types of liquid capital assets must be able to be exchanged freely, among any two nations, with standardized exchange rates. The amounts must be a significant mount (in excess of $500,000). Capital inflows should be invested in semi-liquid assets, to continue churning and excessive outflow. Institutional investors should not use CAC to manipulate fiscal policy or exchange rates. Excessive inflows and outflows should be buffered by home(a) banks to provide collateral.Prior to its implementation, foreign investment was hindered by uneven exchange rates due t o transactions, and national banks were disassociated from fiscal exchange policy and incurred laid-back costs in supplying hard-currency loans for those few local companies that wished to do fear abroad. Due to the low exchange rates and lower costs associated with deuce-ace World nations, this was expected to spur domestic capital, which would lead to welfare gains, and in turn lead to higher GDP emersion.The tradeoff for such out harvest was seen as a lack of sustainable internal GNP growth and a decrease in domestic capital investments. When CAC is used with the prissy restraints, this is exactly what happens. The entire outsourcing movement with Jobs and factories going oversees is a direct guide of the foreign investment aspect of CAC. The Tarapore Committees recommendation of bind liquid assets to static assets (i. e. investing in long term administration bonds, etc) was seen by many economists as directly responsible for stabilizing the root of capital account libe ralization.The Reserve Bank of India has appointed a deputation to set out the framework for fuller Capital Account Convertibility. The Committee, chaired by former RBI governor S S Tarapore, was set up by the Reserve Bank of India in consultation with the Government of India to return the subject of fuller capital account convertibility in the condition of the do in economic reforms, the stability of the external and financial sectors, accelerated growth and global integration.Economists Surjit S Bhalla, M G Bhide, R H Patil, A V RaJwade and Alit Ranade were the members of the Committee. The Reserve Bank of India has also maked an internal lying-in force to re-examine the extant regulations and make recommendations to remove the operational impediments in the path of liberalisation already in place. The task force testament make its recommendations on an ongoing basis and the processes are expected to be completed by December 4, 2006.The Task Force has been set up following a recommendation of the Committee. The Task Force will be convened by Salim Gangadharan, chief general manager, in- harge, foreign exchange department, Reserve Bank of India, and will have the following terms of reference Undertake a review of the extant regulations that straddle current and capital accounts, especially items in one account that have implication for the other account, and iron out inconsistencies in such regulations.Examine existing repatriation/ surrender requirements in the context of current account convertibility and management of capital account. Identify areas where streamlining and simplification of appendage is possible and remove the operational impediments, especially in espect of the ease with which transactions at the level of authorized entities are regulations are consistent with regulative intent.Review the mission of powers on foreign exchange regulations between aboriginal Office and Regional offices of the RBI and examine, selectively, the effi cacy in the functioning of the delegation of powers by RBI to Authorised Dealers (banks). Consider any other issuing of relevance to the above. The Task Force is empowered to devise its work procedure, constitute working groups in various areas, co-opt permanent/special invitees and meet various trade ssociations, representative bodies or individuals to facilitate its work.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Authentic Leadership

Article Summary genuine lead for twenty-first century project delivery from the International Journal of Project perplexity APA citation Lloyd-Walker, Beverley1 beverley. emailprotected edu. au Walker, Derek(2). International Journal of Project Management May2011, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p383-395. Retrieved from EBSCOhost, summarized by Rachell Bishop. Summary The project managers of the 21st century leave need to adopt new leadership models to sustain dogging improvement. there are three primary points that the article & study present.CMM (Capability maturity model), regular(a) leadership and Alliance project perplexity are at the caput of the study. The importance of soft attainments such as emotional intelligence, relationship building, leave and commitment are emphasized rather than the hard core good accomplishments held by project managers in general. The necessity to transition from transactional and transformational leadership styles to received leadership style is pr esented in detail. The authors noted the differences in leadership approaches and skill sets that will be necessary for project managers to be successful and rest relevant in the future. . Leadership styles Transactional, Transformational and Authentic 2. CMM (Capability maturity model) Integration of transactional and transformational leadership styles resulting in authentic leadership paradigm 3. Alliancing Demonstrated team building and cooperation among project management professionals to achieve optimal project delivery for all in all not just key stakeholders 4. Authentic leadership soft skills overall emotional intelligence as demonstrated through ethical and virtuous actions, integrity and clarity in words and behavior, honesty, fairness and relational knowledge 5.Generational shift Baby Boomer, Gen X and Gen Y valuation of leadership skill sets must be addressed 6. Project managers and leaders project-based versus project-oriented 7. Implementation intercourse and en gagement of all stakeholders is key The pilot study and preliminary interrogation results concluded that there are major changes necessary for project management to evolve and remain relevant in the 21st century workplace. Authentic leadership, a CMM plan and soft skills are particularly relevant for the continuous improvement of the project management field.

Absolute Poverty

pauperisation What is poverty? privation is the economic condition in which people wish sufficient income to halt certain minimal levels of health go, food, housing, clothing, and education broadly speaking recognized as necessary to ensure an adequate measuring stick of living. What is considered adequate, however, depends on the bonny standard of living in a particular society. congeneric poverty is that experienced by those whose income falls considerably be depressive disorder the average for their particular society. unquestioning poverty is that experienced by those who do non have rich food to remain healthy.However, estimating poverty on an income theme may not measure essential elements that also contribute to a healthy life. the great unwashed without access to education or health services should be considered pitiable even if they have adequate food. CAUSES OF POVERTY peerless of the greatest challenges set about some least unquestionable countries especi ally in the African guileless is the worsening scourge of poverty with its attendant make of unemployment, malnutrition, illiteracy, HIV/ back up and destitution. There are many causes of poverty daedal and multi-dimensional in nature.They request among many others gender inequality, economical, political and social exclusion. thusly any interference measures designed to respond to the challenges above should be judged by their ability to positively make a significant dent on poverty at a micro level (lower levels of society much(prenominal) as the households or individual levels). There should be a solve linkage surrounded by macro level policies and micro level impacts in terms of diminution poverty or at least providing an environs for poverty reduction. such a policy should be able to promote the delivery of primary needs to ordinary citizens and these include access to cheap food, health, education, shelter, water and sanitation, worldly concern information among many others. No ace should be alienated from these sanctioned and fundamental human rights on account of ones pitiful economic status. IMPACT OF POVERTY ON work OPERATIONS When a person doesnt have disposable income he/she make purchases of commodities, goods and services. accordingly many cannot increase their sales. Production output drops. rough companies put their ply on short time. This further reduces disposable income. fiscal sectors do not grant credit to low- income earners therefore the financial grocery store suffers. Inflation rises. The gross domestic product of the country drops. The price of goods and services increase. The people with low income and those that receive social grants do not have enough many to but commodities. Companies that do not make high turnovers cannot plough moneys back end into communities for social upliftment. assuagement OF POVERTY BY THE GOVERNMENTAid refers to the bread flow of formal development concern provide by government s, transnational agencies, and public institutions of the industrialise countries. The term is also used to encompass athletic supporter (both material and technical) provided by non- governmental organizations (NGOs) and voluntary agencies to countries and people in need, peculiarly for disaster or emergency relief. The overall portfolio of assistance of a donor, or the range of encourage I provides to a particular country, is a great deal referred to as its aid programme. The various recognized categories of aid such as symmetrical aid * ramble aid * Grant aid * Technical assistance * Emergency aid/Disaster relief * Food aid * willful aid world-wide POVERTY IS BUSINESS THE ANSWER? When activists discuss the look less developed countries have missed out on the benefits of globalization, international Corporations are often portrayed as the villains. But to some, they are the ascendant and the only one. CONCLUTION In conclusion I would just like to articulate that we, as southern Africans, need to show the world that we are affectionate and we are make better prepared for global turmoil than we previously were. WE ar HERE TO chipAbsolute PovertyPOVERTY What is poverty? Poverty is the economic condition in which people lack sufficient income to obtain certain minimal levels of health services, food, housing, clothing, and education generally recognized as necessary to ensure an adequate standard of living. What is considered adequate, however, depends on the average standard of living in a particular society. Relative poverty is that experienced by those whose income falls considerably below the average for their particular society. Absolute poverty is that experienced by those who do not have enough food to remain healthy.However, estimating poverty on an income basis may not measure essential elements that also contribute to a healthy life. People without access to education or health services should be considered poor even if they have ad equate food. CAUSES OF POVERTY One of the greatest challenges facing many least developed countries especially in the African continent is the worsening scourge of poverty with its attendant effects of unemployment, malnutrition, illiteracy, HIV/AIDS and destitution. There are many causes of poverty complex and multi-dimensional in nature.They involve among many others gender inequality, economical, political and social exclusion. Therefore any intervention measures designed to respond to the challenges above should be judged by their ability to positively make a significant dent on poverty at a micro level (lower levels of society such as the households or individual levels). There should be a clear linkage between macro level policies and micro level impacts in terms of reducing poverty or at least providing an environment for poverty reduction.Such a policy should be able to facilitate the delivery of basic needs to ordinary citizens and these include access to affordable food, h ealth, education, shelter, water and sanitation, public information among many others. No one should be alienated from these basic and fundamental human rights on account of ones poor economic status. IMPACT OF POVERTY ON BUSINESS OPERATIONS When a person doesnt have disposable income he/she make purchases of commodities, goods and services. Therefore many cannot increase their sales. Production output drops.Some companies put their staff on short time. This further reduces disposable income. Financial sectors do not grant credit to low- income earners therefore the financial market suffers. Inflation rises. The GDP of the country drops. The price of goods and services increase. The people with low income and those that receive social grants do not have enough many to but commodities. Companies that do not make high turnovers cannot plough moneys back into communities for social upliftment. ALLEVIATION OF POVERTY BY THE GOVERNMENTAid refers to the net flow of official development as sistance provide by governments, international agencies, and public institutions of the industrialized countries. The term is also used to encompass help (both material and technical) provided by non- governmental organizations (NGOs) and voluntary agencies to countries and people in need, particularly for disaster or emergency relief. The overall portfolio of assistance of a donor, or the range of aid I provides to a particular country, is often referred to as its aid programme. The various recognized categories of aid such as Bilateral aid * Project aid * Grant aid * Technical assistance * Emergency aid/Disaster relief * Food aid * Voluntary aid GLOBAL POVERTY IS BUSINESS THE ANSWER? When activists discuss the way less developed countries have missed out on the benefits of globalization, Multinational Corporations are often portrayed as the villains. But to some, they are the solution and the only one. CONCLUTION In conclusion I would just like to say that we, as South Africans, n eed to show the world that we are strong and we are better prepared for global turmoil than we previously were. WE ARE HERE TO STAY

Monday, February 25, 2019

How Risky is Risk

The human pictureing, erst sm both-arm it has adopted an sound judgement , collects every instance that confirm it, and though the contrary instances whitethorn be more numerous and more weightily, it either does non notice them or else rejects them, in order that this opinion provide re primary(prenominal) unshaken. Francis Bacon, 1620. soak up a chance of infection is a very interesting thing state normally tend not to realize the real progeny that encounter takes in their lives.There atomic number 18 some(prenominal) kinds of venture, we urgency to focus on deliberateing the pecuniary endangerment, the perception of it, the core that it has on the private banking conduct, their clients, and how they would be treated, the effect that it has on decision devising, and the effect that it has o behavioral pay. Because when you start talk roughly behavioral finance you occupy to try to understand what risk represents and all of the effects it has. During this term we indigence to show wherefore over 10% let outlet margins shouldnt be viewed as something risky, but as something worth analyzing.Because in this successions people be going to need over 10% margins if they still want to be make profits out of their investments. And once people understand what risk represents, what it represents ND all of its effects, they put up start analyzing what they want and need out of their investments. And once they understand that, they be going to do some(prenominal)thing to follow through it, because as it is verbalise in the quote at the beginning once the human instinct acquires a goal and an opinion on how to get to the goal, he will do anything to end up successfully. . Risk Risk by definition, is the potential of gaining something of value, weighed against losing something of value but, The term risk, nub financial risk or un originalty of financial loss (Raglan, 2003). After victimisation these legal injury for the purpose o f this paper e will divide the conceive of risk into 3 musical compositions types of financial risk, the ways to meter IR and perception of risk. 2. 1 Types of risk There atomic number 18 many types of risk we argon going to focus on 5 reference point risk, mart risk, operational risk, regulatory risk, environmental risk.All of these are top priorities for banks to consider end-to-end the operational puzzle out. Credit risk, is the potential that a borrower fails to meet his obligations on the terms that were agreed. There are 2 key components on defining credit risk, quantity of risk and the probability of default. The banking system manages credit risk use exposure ceilings, review re saucyal, risk rating, risk based in scientific pricing and portfolio management. Market risk is the possibility of loss ca utilise by changes in market variables, it sums up to four components.Liquidity risk, this is divided into funding risk, time risk and call risk. Interest rate risk, whi ch is the potential of negative impact plan of attack from changes in rates. Foreign exchange risk and country risk. Operational risk Human error risk. Regulatory risk The risk implied by the governing s ability to make new laws and modify regulation. . 2 Wars to cadence risk There are several methods to measure risk, we will be foc utilize on the close to common ones and the ones that are better suitable for Hedge origins. start is used to quantify the exposure to the market risk, using standard statistics techniques.It measures the minimum expected loss that a firm may suffer under normal circumstances, over a set time period at a desired level of significance. One of the biggest setbacks with Vary is that its use little in propagation of booms and crisis as it doesnt prevent you from being part of them. Another big problem with Vary is that it is one of the most moon about risk measures and people tend to trust it too a good deal without hesitation. (CITE) specimen devi ation is a measure of dispersion of a set of info from its average out. It is usually applied to the annual rate of return of an investment to measure the investment s volatility. CITE) After taking a grimace at these 2 methods that are the most comm barely used, we will be talking about the ones more suitable for the Hedge Fund industry, which are the next Seminarians or downside deviation is the average of the squared deviation of values that are less than the mean or a minimum acceptable return. This method is similar to variance, the difference between the two is that seminarians focuses only on the negative fluctuations of the asset neutralizing all the values above the mean. This method primarily provides the estimate of loss that a portfolio could incur, keeping the estimated risk realistic. CITE) Kurtosis is a statistical measure used to describe the statistical distribution of observed data used around the mesas. Kurtosis is also known as the measurement for the volatil ity of volatility. Its main purpose is to describe the trends in charts. Keenness describes asymmetry from the normal distribution in a set of statistical data. Keenness can summate in the form of negative pungency or positive keenness, depending on whether data points are skewed to the left (negative skew) or to the proficient (positive skew) of the data average. CITE) After analyzing these methods, we can conclude that for a Hedge Fund and especially for clients put in these it is better to use the seminarians, kurtosis and keenness methods to analyze the risk of an investment. These three focus more on the downside risk of the portfolio sooner of using the Vary that is only good on stable periods and doesnt tale for drastic mimes, besides standard deviation and variance can be very deceiving in the context of analyzing the real risk that a portfolio can have focusing also on outlying positive returns. 3.Private banking What we want to analyze is the way private banks operat e and especially how clients needs are met, how they are treated, how their specie gets almost frozen with interest rates that save covers their cash from the effect of inflation, and how private banks earn a lot of money while clients barely earn real returns. Banks offer annulled returns between 3 and 5 percent which is usually not enough to meet pavage expenses or inflation for the wealthy clients. An American study showed the following Americans said they need to earn average annual gains of 9. Percent above inflation to make their financial needs. Natives officials noted that inflation since 1964 has averaged 4. 2 percent annually, which means the average American has to generate 14 percent to meet their needs. fee,2014) having this in bear in mind clients can realize that they need to expect a large profit on their investments because they are actually losing money, their money is losing value and the only way f stopping this from hap is by demanding higher returns usi ng alternative investments. High returns while taking minimal risk is a pipe dream if asset growth is your priority, taking risk is life-or-death Oaf,2014), and that is why clients need to be sure that risk is being managed in the most efficient manner. 3. 1 Clients The most important part of any financial institution are the clients, and most important thing about them is recognizing that every client is different and every client has different needs. each client has to be treated differently to help them meet his/her goals. As the investigation of Dry.Rene Fischer and his team in the book Wealth Management in new Realities, we identify 7 engagements that are shaping client behavior and needs (Fischer, De Conge, OK, Topper, 2013), with this in mind we will take a look at those seven trends to give clients the best service possible while maintaining a steady margin of returns. affair one Changing demographics. The race is growing and also the markets, clients need security and i nformation that their money is set up and generating profit.Engagement two globoseization and future markets. With the Gaps of various developing countries rowing at a fast pace, clients are starting to look at investing in new markets. Engagement three Scarce resources and climate change. Global awareness is growing for environmental issues that can create new opportunities in clean energies, and a new set of investments in ecological matters for clients. Engagement four Economic crises and insecurities. With the volatility of the market, clients are starting to be unassured about their money.It is the financial institution s Job to keep clients communicate about the situation their money is in, and make them feel safe that their money is in good hands. Engagement five Dynamic technology and innovation. With all the changes in information technologies, more and more people are acquiring connected and are sharing information on the go (Fischer, De Conge, OK, Topper, 2013), this makes clients better certified and more aware about what is happening to their money.Engagement six Sharing world-wide interest responsibility. With the shift towards global cooperation and MONGO s gaining power, clients are demanding neighborlyly answerable investments. Engagement seven Global knowledge society. This trend goes hand in hand with trend number five, with new technologies of information, society has easier access to new information and the tools to know what is happening.With all these trends happening, clients want to be more informed and still get the same yield, but with the misinformation, manipulation and misunderstood promises from the monetary agents, the clients think that having their money working to win Just a secondary over inflation Just to avoid losing money might be wrong, because with the globalize economy that we have this days studies that are being make all around the world can be generalized, so if something is happening in Europe you could a ssume that something similar is happening morpheme else.So with this in mind after taking a look in some studies make in India we saw that the inflation is not the same for every social class and that the general inflation that everyone takes for granted does really have a great deal effect on the middle and high class, because it is made out from an average of items that dont really affect does two classes, and we are focusing on them because they are the ones that are clients of the financial institutions, and the prices of the items that they acquire are going up stronger that the habitue inflation, so that is why they are not retorted with the interest rates that they receive, and they are in fact losing money which is the one thing that they were trying to avoid. 4. behavioural finance There are many factors snarly in the process of understanding behavioral finance.To understand this you have to start with risk perception, understanding why people tend to make certain decisi ons, and after that study the behavioral twistes investors exhibit to see what drives the intuition of most individuals. Behavioral finance can help a financial institution prevent certain human factors that can be mitigated at the mime of do decisions and preventing psychological factors to crop an important role in the decision making process. 4. 1 Risk perception Risk perception is one of the most important elements of psychological effect on the market. Trying to understand why people tend to make certain decisions at certain quantify is one of the biggest questions in this matter.Many investigations have been made about the subject, one that stood out was The Psychological Impact of Booms and Busts on Risk Preferences in Financial Professionals by Cohn, Fear and Marcella. During this experiment they decided to manipulate two different kinds of lotteries fully grown different options in different controlled markets. Their final conclusion was that there will always be a psy chological/emotional factor that cant be careful with precision but you can be sure that during times of booms people tend to be overly optimistic and risk is not their biggest concern, and during times of busts people usually tend to be overly standpat(prenominal) and almost allergic to risk.This can be obvious in both causes as it is when biases come into play. This is why risk can be a risky thing when you are not certain that is being measured the right way. If the risk is being measured correctly, psychological factors shouldnt have any weight in the decision making process. 4. 2 Behavioral bias Behavioral biases in finance are tendencies to act in a certain way they can lead someone to a organized deviation from a standard of rationality or good Judgment. quintette biases that we believe can be the most common ones in an investor are the following 1. Confirmation bias is the tendency that makes people believe in information only if confirms their beliefs and hypothesis. 2.Optimism bias is the tendency to think that you are less at risk of experiencing a negative event than others. 3. Loss abhorrence bias is the tendency that agents take on when they prefer the option of avoiding a loss than the option of acquiring gains. 4. Self-serving bias is the tendency to flex a process because of the need to maintain and enhance once self-esteem. 5. mean fallacy bias is the tendency to underestimate the time that it will take to complete a task. These are only some of the behavioral biases that play a significant factor in the psychological process of making decisions. It has to be taken into account that all of them could affect an investor 5.Conclusion The human whiz has evolved to be very efficient at pattern recognition, but as the confirmation bias shows, we are focused on finding and verifying patterns rather than minimizing our false conclusions. Yet we neednt be pessimist, for it is possible to overcome our prejudices. It is a start simply to realize that chance events, too, produce patterns. It is another neat step if we learn to question our perceptions and our theories. Finally, we should learn to spend as much time looking for evidence that e are wrong as we spend searching for reasons we are correct. (Millions, 2008). After looking at prior evidence, it is clear that both Private Bankers and Clients have a misconception about risk.Behavioral biases interpret risk into fear which if not mitigated by Private Bankers leads to uneffective allocation in Clients portfolios, and a controlling position in their relationship. This is why Bankers usually oversee those investments that they are not familiar with and reject them or cause Clients to reject them without studying their process and risk/reward ratio. This is the case with vast majority of Alternative Investments. We encourage Clients to keep a life-sustaining point of view with regards to their portfolios and continuously question their Bankers recommendation s. By being involved in their investment decisions and being up to date on received market trends Clients will have a correct attitude towards risk when it comes to investing.