Monday, September 30, 2019
Most of us used to think that there is just one important difference between British and American culture, that is accent of English language. However, experience of the american exchange students shows that is not true.There are a lot of others cultural, social and economical aspects differing USA and Great Britain, but still they have got some things in common, probably because English culture used to be considered as mother- culture for American. I would like to start with such an interesting and modern cultural aspect as food. In Great Britain they have got a number of restaurants representing cousins from all parts of the worlds, just like in USA. For example, when you are traveling to New-York, you have a possibility to try Chinese food and by passing few stations by subway, you may have a dinner in Russian restaurant. Also, both countries have a big assortment of goodies at the stores. Nonetheless, there is a difference between the diets following by citizens of the both countries. One of the good examples is the breakfast, in England people are eating a lot of proteins such as mushrooms and beens; in contrast, in USA for breakfast people are eating some flakes with milk or juice, or some toasts, pancakes,etc. I suppose we can observe this difference, because people in this countries are living different lifestyles. We can see a good number of social differences between American and English cultures, one of them is sense of humor. English sense of humor was named by american students as Ã¢â¬Å"dryÃ¢â¬ ; however I would characterize it as ironic and a bit sarcastic, also I believe that the sense of humor is something personal, than national. One more important thing is the using of cell phones, british people have got one special habit as talking on cellphone in subways, while American people donÃ¢â¬â¢t have it , they are using phone wherever they want.Also, I guess English people are used to talk on cellphone, and American are using messages more, then actually talking on phone. Apparently, there is a huge culture difference in social aspect such, as attitude to history. Americans are looking through history with modern prospective, on the other hand, British people are feeling respectfully for their past, being proud of the rich for events and old history that England has. Obviously, America is much more younger country , than England, therefore they donot have such a long history. American students for time being in England had to point out that living in England is more expansive ,then in America. I believe , that itÃ has to do with life- level in both countries, it is well known fact that salaries in Great Britain are pretty high. Statistically , the young people over 21 have a sallary around 12$ per hour , while in USA is just 7.25$ per hour, therefore the rent in England is more expensive, then in USA. In conclusion, I would like to say, that students who are going for exchange program, are very good example of how lively culture is, and everyone can notice just these differences which is familiar to himself.All cultures have got differences, and when we are going for living abroad, we are challenging ourself for adaptation foreign culture to our own lifestyle, also I believe that such a unique experience can help us to valuate and appreciate our own cultural aspects.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The Bible has long been teaching people about the value and importance of life. For thousands of years, the Bible has been solid in its advocacy on doing what is best for the life of humanity and all other living creatures in the world. However, while human beings innovated new ways of life and new ways of doing things, cultures was born, and often, these cultures are not in complimentary to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s words as written in the Bible. With the advent of industrialization, scientific era and the world wide connections and globalization, people tend to acquire not just ways of doing things easier but also of making life easier to destroy. People forgot the original message of God and went on doing things that belittle life in all its forms. According to Toynbee and Ikeda (2008), the 20th century has been a very devastating era in human history. This is because of the many untold miseries that humans have confronted for adhering to culture to the extreme. Take for example the culture of globalization that is now a worldwide phenomenon. Globalization according to Gunton (2004) is simply the opening of barriers to information, market, labor and the like. Globalization gave people the power to have a global village, enabling different countries to connect freely with each other. Despite the benefit of this culture of openness, globalization has also brought so much sufferings especially to the poor people who were the subject for labor violations, discrimination and all forms of violence that are forbidden in the Bible. The culture of openness and limitless access brought about by globalization has also created a threat to human security as seen in the September 11 incident in the United States of America. This case according to Corson and Pearcey (2004) negates the importance of life as emphasized in the Bible. Technological advances in the other hand, also served as a catalyst for a much wider scale of destruction. Culture and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s words oftentimes do not match, but it is up to human beings to make a balance on their commitment to value life while at the same time adhere to culture. References Colson, C. and Pearcey, N. (2004). How now shall we live. New York. Tyndale House Publishers. Gunton, C. (2004). The one, the three, and the many: God, creation, and the culture of modernity. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Toynbee, A. and Ikeda, D. (2008). Choose Life: A dialogue. New York: I. B. Tauris and Co. Ltd.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Today, society call many Ã¢â¬Å"worksÃ¢â¬ produced by individuals and call themselves artist, but is it really art? If you were to try to determine a definition for the word: art, you would find it to be an elusive word. I recently observed a landscaper cut and shop a pine tree which had overgrown in size. Although, some would say the pin... ...know it will go eventually the way of the west. Art is important to learn and to appreciate while we have the means to do so. Incorporating all of the elements which make for traditional or modernistic art is in the hands of this generations and like the mentors of yesterday, today we need to look around us for the next Rembrandt or Picasso. Tomkins, Calvin. Time Life Library of Art: The World of Marcel Duchamp. New York: Time Incorporated, 1966. Print Coughlan, Robert. Time Life Library of Art: The World of Michelangelo. New York: Time Incorporated, 1966. Print Getlein, Mark. Living with Art. 10th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2011. Print Lynton, Norbert. The Story of Modern Art. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2008. Print Eimerl, Sarel. Time Life Library of Art: The World of Giotto. New York: Time Incorporated, 1966. Print
Friday, September 27, 2019
Contemporary Theories Of Knowledge - Research Paper Example Meaning and purpose are often taken to mean the same thing but in this case, they will be taken to mean different things. Personal lives may be taken to mean an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s account of his/her experience but for the sake of this essay, I will take personal lives as the generalized experience of people rather than the effect on my own personal life. This is because one personÃ¢â¬â¢s account of existence cannot explain fully the extent to which knowledge produces meaning and purpose as some knowledge is second-hand. Knowledge for Plato is Ã¢â¬Å"justified true beliefÃ¢â¬ (Lagemaat 24; Lemos 9; Russell, n.p). The Ã¢â¬Å"whole pointÃ¢â¬ of knowledge as this would mean that the absolute or only point of knowledge is to produce meaning and purpose hence one has to agree or disagree with the statement but not to a certain extent. However, I will argue that knowledge produces meaning but sometimes does not produce purpose in our lives. Although knowledge influences our purpose in life, purpose can be achieved through different ways without knowledge. As stated earlier, knowledge is Ã¢â¬Ëjustified true belief.Ã¢â¬ However, the concepts of truth and belief need the explanation as they are controversial concepts. According to Dunn, the truth is Ã¢â¬Å"things that can be justified and believed inÃ¢â¬ (n.p). It distinguishes knowledge from belief hence what we claim to know must be true, if mere belief, it is true or false (Lagemaat 24). As such, believing that something is true does not make it true. According to the correspondence theory of truth, we can know if something is true through our sense experience while for coherence theory, a proposition must match with what we know to be true. Knowledge can also be true if the majority of people believe in it (Dunn, n.p). For pragmatists, the truth is whatever is useful to us.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Favorite Place - Personal Statement Example The fascination for Hawaii grew more and more after watching every new episode. One odd day, I asked my Dad if he could send me on a vacation to Hawaii. Although I wasn't too optimistic but I was astonished when he agreed and brought the tickets the very same day. After a long flight, I woke up with the biggest smile because I was in Hawaii. I found heaven at twenty-one degrees North and one hundred fifty-six degrees West, in the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is heaven. I was in love with this place right at my first glance. From the scenic volcanoes to the picturesque coral reefs, Hawaii is picture perfect. The milieu is immaculate to showcase the contrasting nature. Even the most fastidious people on earth would find it difficult to argue. With the advent of the sun in the morning, I put on my freshly made orchid lei. I enjoy smelling the sweet, floral aroma all day long. The beach appeared tailored to hug the waves of the ocean. I strolled on the beach and could easily spend the entire day over it either listening to my IPOD or simply reading a book. The warm, soft sand is brownish-tan in color, and it feels so good when my feet sink into it. I love hearing the brilliantly blue ocean calling out to me with its mellifluous voice. The beach also has a very distinct smell, the mixture of tropical tanning oils and the salty ocean water.
Television Advertising and Gender Stereotypes - Essay Example It should not be surprising then that gender roles are already fully enforced by the time the child leaves for school since daytime television represents the most egregious period for the reproduction of traditional gender stereotypes that coerce a commitment to meeting them from both the impressionable child and, typically, the mother whose influence over the child's developing mind is in conflict with the most entertaining and available substitute for the missing father, the television set. Television commercials are among the most effective when it comes to media reproduction of the existing gender ideologies by simple virtue of the ubiquity of the set itself. In the United States, for instance, it has been estimated that the percentage of population that has at least one television inside their home is a staggering 98%, and further the average member of these households spend more than the equivalent of one full 24 hour day per week watching television (Coltrone, Adams 325) Throughout the history of television advertising right up to contemporary times, the images that are projected and reinforced in commercials have been unsatisfying at best and demeaning at worst. Invariably, female characters are presented as objects of sexual domination who seem to exist entirely to prepare themselves for the approval of the male. At the same time, male characters are typically portrayed in such a way as to intensify the acceptance of aggressive behavior and the urge to dominate while engaging in every imaginable activity (Ruth 388.) Stereotypes are reinforced with more attention paid toward the gender dependent upon the demographics of the viewing audience, and within these minor recalculation there exists ever more subtle calibrations of the effect. For instance since the beginning of television history the daytime has been devoted to viewing aimed predominantly at females in the form of soap operas, cooking shows and children's cartoons. The demographics have certainly changed over the decades with more women entering the workplace and more men staying at home, but contemporary daytime television is still dominated by soap operas and discussion shows like Oprah Winfrey. As a result the changing lifestyles, often the gender stereotyping becomes so subtle as to be unobserved by casual viewers (Craig 209). Men are most often portrayed as confident and independent while women are generally more passive and less ambitious. This engendering of hidden stereotyp es can be as thinly veiled as showing men in suits and a tie acting in a corporate setting while women are shown dressed more casually and hanging out with friends. Commercials and advertisements offered during the daylight hours have traditionally served the purpose of reinforcing the ideological naturalization that places men firmly into the authoritarian and patriarchal role while strengthening the belief that women should associate femininity with submission (Perse 167). Even on 21st century television commercials women are invariably shown to be primarily interested in household duties and motherly obligations. The role of the housewife and by extension all women is to not only service the male and his
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The source Code for the implementation of Python - Coursework Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that for each of the data files, the program performed multiple query execution. There were 7 questions, each with a separate SQL command to be executed in the program. The outcome is that the output is also displayed as a continuous block at the end of each source code. Essentially, because the questions applied to all the datasets, all the sections of the source code remained the same except the name of the table, which varied in all the source codes, from table2, to table3 then to table4. With this, the results were obtained differently. The second area of modification involved introduction of advanced methods in the management of the data files. This involved the introduction of GUI interactive platform to replace the command line. For example, the user is prompted by the system to enter the file name as shown in the paper. The program worked as per the requirement. This is confirmed by the screenshots captured during the execution of the program. The screenshots contain accurate values for the answers to the 7 questions in each stage. In that regard, the program is not only running, but also it is answering all the 7 questions in various ways. The program was executed in python 2.7.6. The challenge faced in its development process was to eliminate numerous errors. Various syntax and runtime errors were faced in the preparation of the program. The second challenge was the integration between python program and SQLite program. In this project, I have been able to develop the program to perform the analysis of the data in the CSV data files. The future of this program focuses on the ways of increasing the use of graphical tools and objects to further simplify the entire process. The level of success in this project can be given an overall rating of 77%. Once the transformation is done and the system becomes a full GUI application, then the rating can be increased beyond the current 77%.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Resume - Essay Example The majority of his career was devoted to Counter Terrorism, Close Protection, covert operations, and working in hostile environments. Mr. Perkins has made contributions concerning security measurements in businesses in Asia, Africa, and the Gulf Region. He is based in the Philippines and has worked on world-wide assignments. His focus has been on businesses that have needed high risk security. OBJECTIVE: I am seeking the opportunity to utilize my talents and experience to work in high risk security projects where I may be in a position to plan, design, develop, implement, and evaluate the security of corporations. Enhanced the security program in China, in various areas: Threat Assessment; Security Management Plan; Emergency Evaluation Plan; Operating Procedures; Kidnap and Ransom Plan, and Close Protection Team Training. Managed the security for a joint Australian/Philippines company based in the Philippines and was responsible for the safety of 800 employees and the property on site (an island that has insurgency
Monday, September 23, 2019
What was the impact of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor - Coursework Example The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7th, 1941 marked a turning point in American history, changing the political consensus on foreign policy in the nation and leading directly to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s entry into the largest and most destructive war in history. The first and most lasting consequence of the Pearl Harbor attack was the ending of the isolationist view of American foreign policy that had grown domestically in the electorate following WWI and the Great Depression. As Krzys Wasilewski writes in "American First in WWII," Ã¢â¬Å"On September 4, 1940, a law undergraduate, R. Douglas Stuart, Jr., founded the America First Committee (AFC), an organization that was to promote isolationism and warn the public against the horrors of Europe`s war. Soon he was joined by Lindbergh, Wood, Nye, and other experienced individuals who turned an obscure committee into a nationally recognized institution whose voice was heard all over the country. America was not the polic eman of the world, stated the AFC. Lindbergh, who became the organization`s most recognized member, said that the United States should invest its resources in defending itself, not other countries. Ã¢â¬ËShall we now give up the independence we have won, and crusade abroad in a utopian attempt to force our ideas on the rest of the world?Ã¢â¬â¢ asked Lindbergh, Ã¢â¬Ëor shall we use air power, and the other advances of modern warfare, to guard and strengthen the independence of our nation?Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Wasilewski, 2008) ... (Lutton, 2002) Whether or not the war could have been avoided is a matter of historical debate, but what cannot be argued with are the direct consequences of the American entry into WWII following the Pearl Harbor attack, which unquestionably turned the tide of the conflict and led to the defeat of the fascist military regimes of Hitler, Mussolini, and the Emperor of Japan. I. The Loss of Human Life from Pearl Harbor and WWII: Modern history books paint an evil picture of the Nazi regime of Germany led by Adolph Hitler and the SS, portraying it as one of the most violent and hateful political regimes of all time. Knowing retrospectively the atrocities and genocide of the Ã¢â¬Å"Final SolutionÃ¢â¬ or Holocaust that led to the deaths of over six million Jews in Europe in concentration camps, the public today believe overwhelmingly that World War II was a just war that stopped the threat of fascism globally and allowed the free, democratic societies led by America and Britain to triu mph ideologically, economically, and politically in the aftermath. Yet, the loss of life during WWII in both civilian and military populations makes it the most destructive and deadly conflict ever engaged in by humanity. The following chart lists the total number of casualties on both sides of the war: These statistics, gathered from a multiplicity of governmental and historical sources, suggest that the Axis powers lost approximately 6.5 million military deaths in WWII combined, in addition to nearly two million civilians. (WarChronicle, 2011) The Allied powers are estimated to have lost over 25 million civilians and 14 million soldiers collectively during WWII. (WarChronicle, 2011) While there is no way of knowing how the war could have been avoided or resolved peacefully, the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Psychopathic Behavior Essay The Psychopath Understanding and Treatment Abstract Mental health disorders are among the most complex disorders to understand. Persons with these types of disorders are not commonly accepted into society. Psychopaths are among some of the most difficult disorders to treat. These persons most often come from a background lacking structure and continuity. Proper treatment is heavily debated. Report It is a popular belief that psychopaths are considered to be individuals that are as brilliantly charming as they are morally insane. However, the tendency to refer to the psychopathic behavior as Ã¢â¬Å"morally insaneÃ¢â¬ is a misconception. Regardless of scientific discoveries, psychopathy is a disease which results in a physiological deficiency. The brain of psychopaths is believed to fail in generation of proper wave activity. Waves emitted are generally slower in individuals suffering from psychopathic behavior. This fundamental incompetence is responsible for a lower degree of arousal when these persons face a threatening situation. Their lack of anxiety and consequent careless behavior in any situation is commonly referred to as lack of conscience. These individuals lack the plethora of emotions that arise in the Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ individual; that is, the ability to feel, to anticipate the breaking of the law, or to feel sorry when they break these laws. They are deprived of a conscience which organizes the moral notions of good and bad. In normal behavior, acts are constrained by external laws at work in society. The conscience of average individuals are able to anticipate any destructive action which could obstruct the law. Psychopaths donÃ¢â¬â¢t have such a capacity. They are leading a life which ignores external impediments. This fundamental unawareness is directly related to a slower activity of waves at work in the brain. This abnormality blocks the entire process of learning. The lower waves produce a decreased response of anxiety which causes the psychopaths to not be anxious or afraid of punishment when they perform a reprehensible action. According to CleckleyÃ¢â¬â¢ s definition of psychopathic behavior in the Mask of Sanity , (1988) when one of them breaks the law, he or she does not experience a sense of shame or guilt. When psychopaths are faced with any form of punishment Ã¢â¬â it could be physical pain or punishment regardless of the deliberate breaking of laws- they do not react with as much anticipation as the average individual. This is because they lack a part of the neurological process which allows them to avoid pain; that is, the adequate rise in palmar sweat gland activity which generates the adequate stimulus. Therefore, the psychopath will reproduce the same harmful actions again and again. In 1954, EllingtonÃ¢â¬â¢ s experiments showed that between 31 % and 58 % of psychopaths showed some form of electroencephalogram abnormality located in the temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres. Another experience regarding the lack of anxiety in psychopaths was lead in 1965 by Robert Hare. In that experience, psychopathic and non-psychopathic subjects were told that each time they would see the number eight in a series of number from one to twelve, they would receive an electric shock. Non-psychopathic individuals showed higher rates of anxiety when they knew the number eight was about to come. On the contrary, psychopathic individuals remain perfectly calm at the sight of the feared number. These results are important since they show that it is a physiological deficiency rather than deliberate insanity that is responsible for the psychopathÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal behavior. Another perception largely spread among the population concerns the traditional representation of the psychopath who is figured out as a habitual pleasure seeker, constantly searching for the next big thrill. In the movie the Silence of the Lambs, such a personality is embodied in Hannibal Lector, a frightening psychopath who, by his compelling need of strong experiences, breaks the boundaries of decency. The portrayal of this character embodies the collective myths referring to the mental scheme of the psychopath. The representation is romanticized in order to play with societyÃ¢â¬â¢s fascination for the violation of laws. However, the popular myths have captured one of the most fundamental features of the psychopathic personality as described by Cleckley, cited in p. 479 of Abnormal Behavior. Most psychopaths become bored quickly with the humdrum of everyday life. They search constantly for new thrills and experiences daring robberies, impersonations, confidence games, new varieties of drugs and deviant sexual behaviorÃ¢â¬ . The psychopath occasionally needs to receive a stimuli stronger than the average person in order to be aroused and, eventually, find Ã¢â¬Å"the gameÃ¢â¬ exc iting. Therefore, psychopathÃ¢â¬â¢s brain activity is not always below the average. Otherwise, this decreased activity would have it made difficult to explain the energy the psychopath shows in order to catch his victim. When an immediate reward is offered, impulsivity of the individual suffering from psychopathic disorder increases through an immediate responsiveness to the appealing stimulus. From a neurological point of view, the slow brainwaves are balanced by a peak of specific waves located in the temporal area and linked to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s impulsivity; which, in that case, appears every time there is a promise of instantaneous reward. In 1993, Patterson and Newman conducted a test, the purpose of which was to analyze the reaction of psychopaths when they were confronted with instantaneous rewards. The results where puzzling. While the non-psychopathic individuals, conscious that they were losing their money, stopped to play, nine out of ten psychopaths continued to play even though they had lost money on nineteen of the twenty trials. In that case, the immediate reward which was money functioning as a powerful stimulus, constituted the new thrill. Since psychopathic behavior violates the laws at work in society, the view commonly held among people is that, from an early age, environmental factors cause the psychopathic disorder. The characteristics underlying psychopathy are denial of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s rules or simply lack of concern for the other fellow men. It can be asserted that, at some point in their life, the maturation of a psychopathÃ¢â¬â¢s self has encountered several barriers which, in turn, have resulted in a distorted ego in the young adult. The psychopath is unable to avoid the satisfaction of his primary impulses as well as not feeling the guilt associated with the breaking of a given rule. All these processes were part of the values that, as a young child, the individual has internalized through particular schemes. These schemes referred to as cognitive schemes essentially lie in the emotional responses which are provided by the external world. Through these cognitive clues, an entire world of tenderness and care provides the baby with identifiable marks necessary to his present and future well being. These cognitive schemes are mediation processes between the individual and the world in the sense that, through them, the child distinguishes the good from the bad. Little by little, he is able to build his consciousness of the surrounding world. But, because either the psychotic child has been stopped from doing so at some point of his life or that, generally, these signs have been distributed in spare quantity, the individual will develop psychopathic tendencies since he lacks the ability to relate himself to the world in a proper way. One quick look at the background of Charles Manson is enough to understand the role played by environmental factors in his rearing and the consequent deviant personality he developed through the years. In the book abnormal behavior on p. 488, it is showed that MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Ã¢â¬Å"modeled a life of prostitution, irresponsibility and crime. She probably provided little in the way of cognitive structuring about rules, consequences, or values. Ã¢â¬ For the young boy there was little left to model his life on. What he became later has been certainly influenced by the poor education he received which, in turn, resulted in a subsequent failure to internalize societyÃ¢â¬â¢s prohibitions. The biological approach provided the theory of environmental factors as shaping the future personality with a number of interesting clues. Franz Kallman found that a high percentage of children of psychopaths ended up themselves with psychopathic disorders. The main reason was that their parents were indeed institutionalized for psychopathic symptoms and once left alone, these children experienced the deprivation of external warnings consequent to the familial structureÃ¢â¬â¢s withdrawal. As a result of this lack of guidance, they ended up psychopaths. Moreover a study focusing on children who spend their early years in institutions where there is less love offered than in a family structure, revealed that they later showed an aggressive behavior toward both humans and animals. However, the assertions have to be manipulated cautiously in the sense that if those children later isplayed a criminal behavior though vandalism, truancy and antisocial activities, not all of them ended up psychopath. Seventy to 85 percent of individuals classified as criminals meet the criteria for anti- social personality disorder. By contrast only 15 to 25 percent of convicted criminals meet the criteria for psychopathy. All experiments stated above have sh own how the characteristics of psychopathy as a disease are dramatically profound. Generally, the subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ clear lack of conscience diminishes dramatically their concrete chances of effective treatment. Nevertheless, science has built its success on an attempt to improve on common limitations, constantly challenging even the most irremediable cases. In that perspective, through the years, several approaches to the treatment of psychopathy have been designed. From a biological point of view, if we assume that psychopathy is a disease which has its physical causes in an abnormal brain activity, that physiological deficiency can be corrected by drug treatment. However, the implications of such treatments have to be considered carefully for whoever is aware of the ethical implications involved by such manipulations. For a long time, psychopaths have been treated with a variety of drugs such as dilantin, sodium, and amphetamine sulfate. Occasional recoveries have been reported. However, the lack of follow-up studies once the subject stopped taking the medications has called into question the overall efficiency of the treatment. Generally, patients do show improvement while taking their medications as prescribed. Moreover, if the drug treatment effectively alleviates the pain, it involves a passive approach to that disease. Indeed, to give a psychopath a pill for lack of real structures adapted to his particular disease represents an Ã¢â¬Å"easy wayÃ¢â¬ to deal with the problem. One illustrative case concerns the use of such drugs treatments in the late 70Ã¢â¬â¢s. In that time, assuming that psychopathy was an incurable disease, certain institutions distributed those drugs Ã¢â¬Å"too generouslyÃ¢â¬ , which, in turn, led the patients suffering from psychopathic symptoms to experiencing a general apathy. This process raised an ethical question: 1. To what extent should the pain be alleviated? 2. Were these drugs dministered in order to help the patients or simply to put them in a great situation of passivity, making sure they would not hurt anyone? Still, this passivity was believed to be better than the manifestation of psychopathic symptoms in which the patient could have an uncontrollable outburst of rage. However, drug treatment generally tries to stabilize the situation rather than look for dy namic solutions which involve an active participation both of the doctor and of his patient. In any case, the use of mediations has to be manipulated cautiously in order to avoid such excesses. Doctors should use them only when it has been established case per case that the violent behavior is clearly related to a brain dysfunction. From a psycho dynamic perspective, the treatment of psychopathic disorders through psychoanalysis is believed by many to be inadequate. Psychoanalysis tends to analyze the conflicts between the id, the ego and the superego. These internal conflicts are at the basis of the personality. On the contrary, a psychopath doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t experience these underlying conflicts. He has become psychopath precisely because he lacked a superego which could have provided him social standards . Whereas most of us are able to sit in an armchair and express our remorse, the psychopath is not likely to expand himself in sorrowful complaints about all the damages he caused to his surroundings. In fact, if his disease is a result of a poor internalization of moral values, he is not able to be lucid and clear about himself. This lack of clarity related to a lack of conscience is one of the reasons why Freud refused to cure a certain category of patients, precisely those who manifested a clear distortion of reality although they were fully aware. Among this category were the schizophrenics but also the psychopaths. Similarly, in Mask of Sanity, Cleckley concluded that psychotherapeutic treatments to treat psychopathy have been disappointing in the sense that they failed to provoke changes to the psychopathÃ¢â¬â¢s daily behavior. Therefore, the best approach to the treatment of psychopathy is that which takes into consideration the environmental factors and attacks the problem from its basis by providing the child with psychopathic tendencies a secure environment where he can learn to anticipate his negative instincts by developing a positive sense of the self. Some believe that the control of psychopathy lies in institutional programs. From January 1954 to February 1955, a study at the Wiltwyck School In New York was conducted. The institutional program at work in the school emphasized a loving permissive environment which gradually replaced permissiveness by efforts to teach social control and responsibility. As a result, the children developing psychopathic disorders responded positively to the treatment. They showed an increase in the internalization of social standards which allowed them to re- experience feelings of guilt and shame. In conclusion, considering the fact that there is no real treatment which has proven to be effective on a larger scale, it is dangerous to let the psychopaths operate in everyday life by lack of social structures. Hare notes the connection between psychopathy and domestic abuse. Psychopaths are generally intelligent and superficially charming enabling them to exploit othersÃ¢â¬â¢ weaknesses. In a culture that promotes superficial values, the psychopath will thrive.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Friday, September 20, 2019
Untasteful, feral, depraved viewing; Euphemism for palpable voyeurism; Is spelling the end of decent, moral society - Slagging out reality TV from a high culture standpoint is as easy as taking candy from a blind, paralysed, limbless baby. Reality TV is a significant part of popular culture in the current settings of mainstream Australian society. Counting the number of reality television shows on two hands is now a physical impossibility. But what impact is this concept having on society now and into the future? The first wave of reality TV shows (such as Survivor, The Weakest Link and Dog Eat Dog) played on people's collective anxieties about the new workplace culture whereby nothing is secure. The threat of expulsion and humiliation is what draws people to this style of programming. This was followed by the lifestyle programs, which were the once removed cousins of Reality TV. Naturally no one is entirely satisfied with the way they live so these programs played on people's desires to improve their lifestyle and living conditions. The third wave of Reality shows (such as Joe Millionaire, The Bachelor and For Love or Money) plays with people's fears of falsified relationships; are there ulterior reasons behind a `supposed' loving relationship (such as money)? The main appeal of Reality television is that the viewer experiences raw human emotions like humiliation, deceit and rejection from a removed perspective. The ability to inspect and analyse the happenings of others without being seen t akes on a god-like perspective. It invokes the fantasy of having access to all that is hidden. Do the treacherous, backstabbing ideals of reality TV shows such as Survivor, Dog Eat Dog and Big Brother actually promote and legitimise their anti-social behaviour and ideals in society, or is it merely a frivolous form of entertainment, providing an emotional outlet for the typical, stressed individual? You could argue either way. Aristotle noted the paradox that people could be entertained by the sufferings and humiliations of others in art form, and named it catharsis. He described it as a purifying and cleansing of the emotions, and the concept is still applied in psychology today to bring repressed feelings and fears to the conscious mind. So could reality TV actually be a vent for people's entrenched emotions? Some would argue that reality TV is an ideal provider of raw human emotion in a realistic form (that is, the emotional relief coupled with the self-assurance of being safely separated from the trials and tribulations). Techniques used in Reality TV in Australia :: essays research papers Untasteful, feral, depraved viewing; Euphemism for palpable voyeurism; Is spelling the end of decent, moral society - Slagging out reality TV from a high culture standpoint is as easy as taking candy from a blind, paralysed, limbless baby. Reality TV is a significant part of popular culture in the current settings of mainstream Australian society. Counting the number of reality television shows on two hands is now a physical impossibility. But what impact is this concept having on society now and into the future? The first wave of reality TV shows (such as Survivor, The Weakest Link and Dog Eat Dog) played on people's collective anxieties about the new workplace culture whereby nothing is secure. The threat of expulsion and humiliation is what draws people to this style of programming. This was followed by the lifestyle programs, which were the once removed cousins of Reality TV. Naturally no one is entirely satisfied with the way they live so these programs played on people's desires to improve their lifestyle and living conditions. The third wave of Reality shows (such as Joe Millionaire, The Bachelor and For Love or Money) plays with people's fears of falsified relationships; are there ulterior reasons behind a `supposed' loving relationship (such as money)? The main appeal of Reality television is that the viewer experiences raw human emotions like humiliation, deceit and rejection from a removed perspective. The ability to inspect and analyse the happenings of others without being seen t akes on a god-like perspective. It invokes the fantasy of having access to all that is hidden. Do the treacherous, backstabbing ideals of reality TV shows such as Survivor, Dog Eat Dog and Big Brother actually promote and legitimise their anti-social behaviour and ideals in society, or is it merely a frivolous form of entertainment, providing an emotional outlet for the typical, stressed individual? You could argue either way. Aristotle noted the paradox that people could be entertained by the sufferings and humiliations of others in art form, and named it catharsis. He described it as a purifying and cleansing of the emotions, and the concept is still applied in psychology today to bring repressed feelings and fears to the conscious mind. So could reality TV actually be a vent for people's entrenched emotions? Some would argue that reality TV is an ideal provider of raw human emotion in a realistic form (that is, the emotional relief coupled with the self-assurance of being safely separated from the trials and tribulations).
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Preferences of Gender Some might argue that there is a difference in the parenting of a boy compared to that of a girl. However true this may be, one must recognize and disregard the sexist implications that have been portrayed for generations. Girls are often said to be easily content and depicted as Ã¢â¬Å"brave and toughÃ¢â¬ . One might be surprised to find that a little girl could be just as interested in playing with a football as she would a Barbie doll if given the opportunity. This simply demonstrates the nonsexist choice of a toy that the girl has made. There are, without a doubt, many differences and different needs in raising a boy than a girl. These differences, however, do not exhibit the difficulties it takes to raise a boy compared to that of a girl. These miniscule, however, significant issues of undoubted sexism are the very grounds for why one might argue that having a boy would be easier than having a girl. There is nothing wrong with wanting to have a little boy after already having a little girl, or vice versa, but why not want to experience both ways of parenting, since both parenting factors demonstrate hardly any difference. The question at hand now is whether or not choosing the sex of the child is so important that one would be willing to expel the pleasures of intimacy, in turn for a prenatal test that involves needles, implantations, and third party, the doctor. Where has the romance gone? Couples are free to choose how many children they have, when they want to have them and whether to terminated unwanted pregnancies, thus why should couples not be free to choose the sex of their child? The argument is that by leaving the sex up to the parents the sex ratio in the population will eventua... ...passed the age conceivability. In conclusion, one can see that the gender preference among couples in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is a boy rather than a girl, more so, for personal reasons rather than scientific. The two articles were extremely informative and interesting. They state many facts as to why one might choose to want to have a boy rather than a girl. Personally, I would be completely content with just a healthy baby, no matter the gender. In a religious stand-point, God blesses you with what he sees fit for you. His decision is not based upon what you think is best for yourself. Works Cited Malpani, Aniruddha. Ã¢â¬Å"Why shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t couples by free to choose the sex of their baby?Ã¢â¬ Reproductive Health Matter. V10. i19. (May 2002). 192 (2) Steinbock, Bonnie. Ã¢â¬Å"Sex Selection: not obviously wrong.Ã¢â¬ The Hastings Center Report. V32. i1. (2002). 23 (7)
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
My American Nightmare Many people today talk of their American DreamsÃ¢â¬ ¦how much they want to fulfill a fantasy of houses, wives, cars, and jobs that pay well. To me, becoming the same as everyone elseÃ¢â¬ ¦fulfilling the dream of a life that I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want is in truth not a dream, but a horrible nightmare which my education has tried to direct me towards, and that I have fought at every turn. Anyone can live the life of another person. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s quite simple to just copy others desires and dreams, to seek that which they seek. To this extent, many Americans base their lives on things like pop culture. We bring up these Ã¢â¬Å"modelÃ¢â¬ Americans that everyone should strive to be, usually in the form of singers and movie stars. To live this life is a lie in two ways, because we strive for a type of living that most of us cannot hope to attain, and because we forget about ourselves, our individuality, and our potential as humans to become something great. As we realize that the first dream is hopeless, we then realize a new false dream, we strive to gain money and social position through a Ã¢â¬Å"good jobÃ¢â¬ . Most of these jobs involve meaningless and menial tasks which we are to repeat over and over again, although many of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s careers mask this repetition by making things like Ã¢â¬Å"projectsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"assignmentsÃ¢â¬ with different purposes. While we may gain money, most Americans hate their jobs, and to this extent lead miserable lives, gaining escape through sexuality and drugs, much in the same way described by Krishnamurti (Krishnamurti 115-117). It is this sort of drudgery that is my nightmare. Waking up every day to relive the same day, the same moments, the same sensation, and then retire to repeat the process. To live this... ...f music upon my life, I made the decision to change my future, and realized what I wanted in life, which brings me to where I am today. I stand at the edge of reality, and looking back I see what I left behind, I see order, regulation, a boring life filled with things that I have no desire for. I turn to look forward, and I see limitless potentialÃ¢â¬ ¦a life without borders or boundaries. A world where anything is possible. Works Cited Krishnamurti, Jiddu. Education and the Significance of Life. New York : Harper & Row, 1981. Columbo, Gary, ed. Rereading America. Boston : Beford, 2001. Gatto, John Taylor. Ã¢â¬Å"The Seven-Lesson SchoolteacherÃ¢â¬ in Rereading America, Gary Columbo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle, eds. Anyon, Jean. Ã¢â¬Å"From Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of WorkÃ¢â¬ in Rereading America, Gary Columbo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle, eds.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The museum is currently undergoing a major renovation and expansion project, dubbed Renaissance ROM, located at the corner of Bloor Street and Avenue Road, north of QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s Park and on the east side of PhilosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s Walk in the University of Toronto. The centrepiece is the recently-opened Michael Lee-Chin Crystal, designed by architect Daniel Libeskind and Bregman + Hamann Architects; installation of exhibits in the addition will continue over a period of months. Existing galleries and buildings are also being modified. Renovated galleries in the historic buildings will reopen in stages, and all work is scheduled to be completed by 2010. The final cost of the project will be $270 million CAD. The Libeskind design, selected from among 50 entrants in an international competition, saw the award winning Terrace Galleries torn down and replaced with a Deconstructivist crystalline-form clad in 25 percent glass and 75 percent aluminium. The building is named after Michael Lee-Chin, who donated $30 million towards its construction. It houses the new main entrance to the museum, a gift shop, a restaurant (C5 Restaurant and Lounge), a cafeteria (Food Studio), seven additional galleries and CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest temporary exhibition hall in the lower level. The CrystalÃ¢â¬â¢s canted walls do not touch the sides of the existing heritage buildings, save for where pedestrian crossing occurs and to close the envelope between the new form and the existing walls. Although designed to conform to existing height restrictions and maintain sight lines along Bloor Street, the Crystal, at certain points, cantilevers over the setback and into the street allowance. The buildingÃ¢â¬â¢s design is similar to some of LibeskindÃ¢â¬â¢s other works, notably the Jewish Museum in Berlin, the London Metropolitan University Graduate Centre, and the Fredric C. Hamilton Building at the Denver Art Museum. The steel framework was manufactured and assembled by Walters Inc. of Hamilton, Ontario. The extruded anodized aluminium cladding was fabricated by Josef Gartner in Germany, the only company in the world that can produce the material. The company also provided the titanium cladding for Frank GehryÃ¢â¬â¢s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain.
Monday, September 16, 2019
One hundred and forty years ago, Arinobu Fukuhara built on his experience working as chief pharmacist at a navy hospital to establish Shiseido, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s first Western-style pharmacy in the Ginza district of Tokyo. Concerned about the inferior medications then available to the public, he aspired to separate medical care and pharmaceutical dispensing in Japan. ShiseidoÃ¢â¬â¢s first president, Shinzo Fukuhara, led Shiseido into the cosmetics business in 1897. The only cosmetics sold in Japan at that time, powder and lipstick, were simply for altering appearance. Dissatisfied with the status quo, Shiseido brought a fresh perspective to cosmetics (n.d.). They formulated their products like pharmaceuticals because they strongly believed that the true value of cosmetics was in achieving healthy, beautiful skin. Based on this belief, Shiseido has developed with an unwavering philosophical commitment to high quality, innovation and authentic value. Millions of people have come to know and trust the Shiseido name as a result. The origin of the company name Ã¢â¬Å"ShiseidoÃ¢â¬ is a passage from the Chinese classic, I Ching (The Book of Changes): Ã¢â¬Å"praise the virtues of the great Earth, which nurtures new life and brings forth new values.Ã¢â¬ Shiseido puts the intent of this passage into practice by discovering and creating new value. This is our founding spirit, and it continues unbroken as Our Mission, ShiseidoÃ¢â¬â¢s raison dÃ¢â¬â¢Ã ªtre (Annual report 2012). Having started out as a pharmacy, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1915 that Shiseido changed direction and committed to the cosmetics industry. The move was masterminded by Shinzo Fukuhara, the third son of Arinobu Fukuhara and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s first president. Ã¢â¬ ¨ An experienced photographer, Shinzo Fukuhara combined artistry with high quality manufacturing, underpinned by the very latest in research and development, to establish Shiseido as a unique presence in the cosmetics industry (n.d.). The beginnings of ShiseidoÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate philosophy As part of the transition from a family business to a more corporate setup, in 1921 Shiseido set out Ã¢â¬Å"ShiseidoÃ¢â¬â¢s Five PrinciplesÃ¢â¬ as the foundation of its corporate philosophy and activities as a company. These went on to form the basis of ShiseidoÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporate Philosophy in 1989. Having undergone a number of changes since then, this finally evolved into, a new corporate philosophy reflecting the Shiseido GroupÃ¢â ¬â¢s international operations and diverse brand portfolio, in 2011. Establishing a global production network With production facilities already up and running in areas such as North America and Taiwan, as well as in Japan, in 1991 Shiseido opened its first production facility in Europe, thereby establishing a truly global production network. Operations later got underway at a factory in Beijing in 1993 as Shiseido made its first steps towards expanding operations in the Chinese market. In 2010, the company commenced operations at a factory in Vietnam, as part of a concerted effort to tap into new growth in the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"masstigeÃ¢â¬ market (n.d.). Reviewing a description of the market including the economic system to be targeted in this marketing plan, it has been found that Thai woman are interested in new products to whiten their intimate areas. Fair skin is a symbol of opportunity, success and status. There are already skin-whitening pills and diet supplements claiming to pick up where the cosmetics leave off. But this is the first time that a vaginal whitening wash has hit the Thai market (Hodal, 2012). Asian skin ages different than others, instead of Asians being concerned with fine lines and wrinkles, Asians worry about dark spots. Using pale Korean and Japanese pop stars as illustrations, Thai womenÃ¢â¬â¢s magazines are full of fair-skinned Asians promoting products that promise to whiten, lighten and Ã¢â¬Å"boostÃ¢â¬ the complexion, with slogans such as Ã¢â¬Å"Show off your auraÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Get to know the miracle of white skinÃ¢â¬ . Fair-skinned actors and singers dominate the media nearly all over the A sia-Pacific region, where the skin-lightening industry is expected to reach $2bn this year with the fastest growing markets in China and India (Hodal, 2012). Shiseido has been at the forefront of skin-brightening research since launching the lotion Hydrogen Peroxide Cucumber in 1917 (Annual report 2012). They have developed about one-third of the active skin-brightening ingredients used in Japanese cosmetics. Shiseido is concentrating on aging research so that people can grow older beautifully. There are three key aspects in conducting research: functionality that creates healthy, beautiful skin; sensitivity and sensations such as pleasant usability, scent, color and beauty methods; and most important, safety that allows consumers to use their products worry free. In Thailand, Shiseido needs to grow existing products and embrace its brand value. They need to use the foundation they have built to generate solid growth in Thailand. Shiseido will continue to shift through fundamental reforms in order to invest for growth, and will implement fresh initiatives. According to their website, Shiseido has always embraced innovation, progress and challenge. The only way that Shiseido can evolve is by integrating its growing strengths to continuously create new and richer value in new markets. They should see the Asian culture as a future growth driver, and should therefore put their focus on commercials and in-store visuals to build the reputation of the Shiseido brand. They should also consider focusing on local customer needs, promote seasonal cosmetic changes and realize their customers purchasing behavior. People use the Internet to acquire information by themselves and comparison shop beyond category boundaries (Annual report 2012). Shiseido needs to recognize and accommodate to these major changes in the market by taking on the challenge of a new business model that could increases regular users of products by bringing together their existing store-based sales with business and direct marketing using the Internet. I want Shiseido to build direct relationships with customers and use them to steadily deliver the value they generate. I would also like to see Shiseido grow from the cosmetics business by providing total beauty solutions. The key to success for Shiseido lies in offering a suite of products targeted at a wide range of customers, but with special emphasis on the growing luxury and natural sector. There are several reasons behind the growth in high-end cosmetics: the expansion of new markets in Russia and Asia; changing social norms that make the wearing of makeup more acceptable; celebrity worship; promotion within fashion magazines; improvements in the technology that creates makeup; the influence of mass retailers that can offer lower prices, and raising affluence. As makeup becomes less expensive, better and more accessible, more women have moved away from older brands of makeup and skincare in search of higher-quality new products and more exclusivity. Works Cited (n.d.). Retrieved from http://group.shiseido.com/company/info/index.htmlThere are no sources in the current document. Annual report 2012. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://group.shiseido.com/ir/library/annual/pdf/2012/anu00001.pdf Hodal, K. (2012, 11 23). ThailandÃ¢â¬â¢s skin-whitening craze reaches womanÃ¢â¬â¢s intimate areas. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/sep/23/thailand-vaginal-whitening-wash
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Food web From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia AÃ freshwaterÃ aquaticÃ andÃ terrestrialÃ food web. AÃ food webÃ (orÃ food cycle) depicts feeding connections (what eats what) in anÃ ecological communityand hence is also referred to as aÃ consumer-resource system. Ecologists can broadly lump all life forms into one of two categories calledÃ trophic levels: 1) theÃ autotrophs, and 2) theÃ heterotrophs. ToÃ maintaintheir bodies, grow, develop, and toÃ reproduce, autotrophs produceÃ organicÃ matter fromÃ inorganicsubstances, including bothÃ mineralsÃ andÃ gasesÃ such asÃ carbon dioxide.TheseÃ chemical reactionsrequireÃ energy, which mainly comes from theÃ sunÃ and largely byÃ photosynthesis, although a very small amount comes fromÃ hydrothermal ventsÃ andÃ hot springs. A gradient exists between troph ic levels running from complete autotrophs that obtain their sole source of carbon from the atmosphere, toÃ mixotrophs(such asÃ carnivorous plants) that are autotrophic organisms that partially obtain organic matter from sources other than the atmosphere, and completeÃ heterotrophsÃ that must feed to obtain organic matter.The linkages in a food web illustrate the feeding pathways, such as where heterotrophs obtain organic matter by feeding on autotrophs and other heterotrophs. The food web is a simplified illustration of the various methods of feeding that links an ecosystem into a unified system of exchange. There are different kinds of feeding relations that can be roughly divided intoÃ herbivory,Ã carnivory,Ã scavengingÃ andparasitism. Some of the organic matter eaten by heterotrophs, such asÃ sugars, provides energy.Autotrophs and heterotrophs come in all sizes, fromÃ microscopicÃ to manyÃ tonnesÃ Ã¢â¬â fromÃ cyanobacteriaÃ togiant redwoods, and fromÃ virusesÃ andÃ bdellovibrioÃ toÃ blue whales. Charles EltonÃ pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book Ã¢â¬Å"Animal EcologyÃ¢â¬ ; Elton's Ã¢â¬Ëfood cycle' was replaced by Ã¢â¬Ëfood web' in a subsequent ecological text. Elton organized species intoÃ functional groups, which was the basis forÃ Raymond Lindeman's classic and landmark paper in 1942 on trophic dynamics.Lindeman emphasized the important role ofÃ decomposerÃ organisms in aÃ trophic system of classification. The notion of a food web has a historical foothold in the writings ofÃ Charles DarwinÃ and his terminology, including an Ã¢â¬Å"entangled bankÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"web of lifeÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"web of complex relationsÃ¢â¬ , and in reference to the decomposition actions of earthworms he talked about Ã¢â¬Å"the continued movement of the particles of earthÃ¢â¬ . Even earlier, in 1768Ã John BrucknerÃ described nature as Ã¢â¬Å"one contin ued web of lifeÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Food webs are limited representations of real ecosystems as they necessarily aggregate many species intoÃ trophic species, which are functional groups of species that have the same predators and prey in a food web. Ecologists use these simplifications inÃ quantitativeÃ (or mathematical)Ã modelsÃ of trophic orconsumer-resource systemsÃ dynamics. Using these models they can measure and test for generalized patterns in the structure of real food web networks. Ecologists have identified non-random properties in theÃ topographicÃ structure of food webs. Published examples that are used inÃ meta analysisÃ are of variable quality with omissions.However, the number of empirical studies on community webs is on the rise and the mathematical treatment of food webs usingnetwork theoryÃ had identified patterns that are comm on to all. Scaling laws, for example, predict a relationship between the topology of food web predator-prey linkages and levels ofÃ species richness. Trophic levels Main article:Ã Trophic level A trophic pyramid (a) and a simplified community food web (b) illustrating ecological relations among creatures that are typical of a northernÃ BorealÃ terrestrial ecosystem. The trophic pyramid roughly represents the biomass (usually measured as total dry-weight) at each level.Plants generally have the greatest biomass. Names of trophic categories are shown to the right of the pyramid. Some ecosystems, such as many wetlands, do not organize as a strict pyramid, because aquatic plants are not as productive as long-lived terrestrial plants such as trees. Ecological trophic pyramids are typically one of three kinds: 1) pyramid of numbers, 2) pyramid of biomass, or 3) pyramid of energy.  Food webs have trophic levels and positions. Basal species, such as plants, form the first level a nd are the resource limited species that feed on no other living creature in the web.Basal species can be autotrophs ordetritivores, including Ã¢â¬Å"decomposing organic material and its associated microorganisms which we defined as detritus, micro-inorganic material and associated microorganisms (MIP), and vascular plant material. Ã¢â¬Å":94Ã Most autotrophs capture the sun's energy inÃ chlorophyll, but some autotrophs (theÃ chemolithotrophs) obtain energy by the chemical oxidation of inorganic compounds and can grow in dark environments, such as the sulfur bacteriumÃ Thiobacillus, which lives in hotÃ sulfur springs.The top level has top (or apex) predators which no other species kills directly for its food resource needs. The intermediate levels are filled with omnivores that feed on more than one trophic level and cause energy to flow through a number of food pathways starting from a basal species.  Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- In the simplest scheme, the first trophic level (level 1) is plants, then herbivores (level 2), and then carnivores (level 3). The trophic level is equal to one more than the chain length, which is the number of links connecting to the base.The base of the food chain (primary producers orÃ detritivores) is set at zero. Ã Ecologists identify feeding relations and organize species into trophic species through extensive gut content analysis of different species. The technique has been improved through the use of stable isotopes to better trace energy flow through the web. Ã It was once thought that omnivory was rare, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. This realization has made trophic classifications more complex.  Energy flow and biomass Main article:Ã Energy flow (ecology) See also:Ã Ecological efficiencyThe Law of Conservation of Mass dates from Antoine Lavoisier's 1789 discovery that ma ss is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. In other words, the mass of any one element at the beginning of a reaction will equal the mass of that element at the end of the reaction. :11 Left:Ã Energy flow diagram of a frog. The frog represents a node in an extended food web. The energy ingested is utilized for metabolic processes and transformed into biomass. The energy flow continues on its path if the frog is ingested by predators, parasites, or as a decayingÃ carcassÃ in soil.This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and nutrients into biomass. Right:Ã An expanded three link energy food chain (1. plants, 2. herbivores, 3. carnivores) illustrating the relationship between food flow diagrams and energy transformity. The transformity of energy becomes degraded, dispersed, and diminished from higher quality to lesser quantity as the energy within a food chain flows from one trophic s pecies into another. Abbreviations: I=input, A=assimilation, R=respiration, NU=not utilized, P=production, B=biomass. 25] Food webs depict energy flow via trophic linkages. Energy flow is directional, which contrasts against the cyclic flows of material through the food web systems. Ã Energy flow Ã¢â¬Å"typically includes production, consumption, assimilation, non-assimilation losses (feces), and respiration (maintenance costs). Ã¢â¬Å":5Ã In a very general sense, energy flow (E) can be defined as the sum ofmetabolicÃ production (P) and respiration (R), such that E=P+R. The mass (or biomass) of something is equal to its energy content. Mass and energy are closely intertwined.However, concentration and quality of nutrients and energy is variable. Many plant fibers, for example, are indigestible to many herbivores leaving grazer community food webs more nutrient limited than detrital food webs where bacteria are able to access and release the nutrient and energy stores. [ 27]Ã¢â¬ Organisms usually extract energy in the form of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions as energy supply results in the production of nutrients (and carbon dioxide, water, and heat).Excretion of nutrients is, therefore, basic to metabolism. Ã¢â¬Å":1230-1231Ã The units in energy flow webs are typically a measure mass or energy per m2Ã per unit time. Different consumers are going to have different metabolic assimilation efficiencies in their diets. Each trophic level transforms energy into biomass. Energy flow diagrams illustrate the rates and efficiency of transfer from one trophic level into another and up through the hierarchy.  Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-It is the case that theÃ biomassÃ of eachÃ trophic levelÃ decreases from the base of the chain to the top. This is because energy is lost to the environment with each transfer asÃ entropyÃ increases. About eighty to ninety percent of the energy is expended for the organismÃ¢â¬â¢s life processes or is lost as heat or waste. Only about ten to twenty percent of the organismÃ¢â¬â¢s energy is generally passed to the next organism. Ã The amount can be less than one percent in animals consuming less digestible plants, and it can be as high as forty percent inÃ zooplanktonÃ consumingÃ phytoplankton. 32]Ã Graphic representations of the biomass or productivity at each tropic level are calledÃ ecological pyramidsÃ or trophic pyramids. The transfer of energy from primary producers to top consumers can also be characterized by energy flow diagrams.  Food Web AÃ food webÃ is a graphical description of feeding relationships among species in anÃ ecological community, that is, of who eats whom (Fig. 1). It is also a means of showing howÃ energyÃ and materials (e. g. ,Ã carbon) flow through a community ofÃ speciesÃ as a result of these feeding relationships.Typically, species are connected by lines or arrows called Ã¢â¬Å"linksÃ¢â¬ , and the species are sometimes referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"nodesÃ¢â¬ in food web diagrams. Relationships between soil food web, plants, organic matter, and birds and mammals. Ã¢â¬Å"TheÃ herbivoresÃ are usually preyed upon by carnivores, which get theÃ energyÃ of theÃ sunlightÃ at third-hand, and these again may be preyed upon by other carnivores, and so on, until we reach an animal which has no enemies, and which forms, as it were, a terminus on this food cycle. There are, in fact, chains of animals linked together by food, and all dependent in the long run upon plants.We refer to these as Ã¢â¬Ëfood-chains', and to all the food chains in a community as the Ã¢â¬Ëfood-cycle. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ A food web differs from a food chain in that the latter shows only a portion of the food web involving a simple, linear series of species (e. g. ,Ã predator,Ã herbivore,Ã plant) connected by feeding links. A food web aims to depict a more complete picture of the feeding relationships, and can be considered a bundle of many interconnected food chains occurring within the community. All species occupying the same position within a food chain comprise a trophic level within the food web.For instance, all of the plants in the foodweb comprise the first or Ã¢â¬Å"primary producerÃ¢â¬ tropic level, allÃ herbivoresÃ comprise the second or Ã¢â¬Å"primary consumerÃ¢â¬ trophic level, and carnivores that eatÃ herbivoresÃ comprise the third or Ã¢â¬Å"secondary consumerÃ¢â¬ trophic level. Additional levels, in which carnivores eat other carnivores, comprise a tertiary trophic level. Elton emphasized early on that food chains tend to show characteristic patterns of increasing body size as one moves up the food chain, for example fromÃ phytoplanktonÃ to inv ertebrate grazers to fishes, or from insects to rodents to larger carnivores like foxes.Because individuals of small-bodied species require lessÃ energyÃ and food than individuals of larger-bodied species, a given amount ofenergyÃ can support a greater number of individuals of the smaller-bodied species. Hence, ecological communities typically show what Elton called a pyramid of numbers (later dubbed the Eltonian pyramid), in which the species at lower trophic levels in the food web tend to be more numerous than those at higher trophic levels.A second reason for the pyramid of numbers is low ecological efficiency: someÃ energyÃ is lost at each transfer between consumer and prey, such that theenergyÃ that reaches top predators is a very small fraction of that available in the plants at the base of the food web. Although there is wide variation among types ofÃ organismsÃ and types ofÃ ecosystems, a general rule of thumb is that availableÃ energydecreases by about a n order of magnitude at each step in the food chain.That is, only about 10% of theenergyÃ harvested by plants is consumed and converted into herbivoreÃ biomass, only 10% of that makes it intoÃ biomassÃ of primary carnivores, and so on. Thus, the structure of food webs is dictated in part by basic constraints set byÃ thermodynamics. The predictable dissipation ofÃ energyÃ at each step in food chains is one of the factors thought to limit the length of most food chains to a maximum of four or five steps. Cohen et al. (2003) emphasized that the correlations mong body size, abundance, and trophic level produce a characteristic trivariate structure to (pelagic) food webs (Fig. 2). The pyramid of numbers is less obvious at the most basal levels in terrestrial communities based on trees, which are typically much larger than theherbivoresÃ that feed on them. Pyramids of numbers orÃ biomassÃ may even be inverted in cases where the microscopic plants that support the web s how very rapid turnover, that is, where they grow and are eaten so rapidly that there is less plantÃ biomassÃ than herbivoreÃ biomassÃ present at a given time. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Decomposers are an assemblage of smallÃ organisms, including invertebrates,Ã fungi, andÃ bacteria, that do not fit neatly into any trophic level because they consume deadÃ biomassÃ of organisms from all trophic levels. Decomposers are a critical component of the food web, however, because they recycle nutrients that otherwise would become sequestered in accumulating detritus. All food chains in a community constitute a food web. AÃ food web is simply the total set of feeding relationship amongst and between the species composing a biotic community. These relationships may achieve considerable complexity.With many food chains and cross connecting links, there is greater opportunit y for the prey and predator population in an ecosystem to adjust to the changes. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- The producer-consumer arrangement is one kind of structure known as trophic structure(trophic = food) and each food (nutritional) level in the food chain is called trophic levelÃ or energy level. The first trophic level in an ecosystem is occupied by the plants-producers (green plant-primary producers), because they utilize solar energy which is transformed to chemical form during photosynthesis.The energy stored in food or green plants is consumed by the plant eaters (herbivores) which make the second trophic level. Herbivores are also called primaryconsumers. Primary consumers in turn are eaten by carnivores (also known as secondary consumers) which occupy third trophic level. Secondary consumers (Primary carnivores) may be eaten by other carnivores (secondary or top carn ivores) which are known as tertiary consumers and occupy fourth trophic level. Decomposer occupy fifth trophic level in an ecosystem.Food Web- In nature, food chain relationships are very complex. They never operate as isolated sequences, as one organism may form the food source of many organisms and so on. Thus, instead of a food chain, a number of food chains are interconnected with each other and form a web-like structure known as Ã¢â¬Ëfood web'. For example, grass may be grazed by grasshoppers as well as cattle, rabbits and each of these may be eaten by different type of carnivores, such as birds, toads, snakes, foxes, depending on their food habit.Thus, a particular organism may not occupy the same tropic level in every food chain; it may simultaneously behave as secondary, tertiary or a top consumer. Organisms, whose food is obtained from plants by the same number of steps are said to belong to the same tropic level. Thus, green plants occupy the first tropic level or the pr oducer level. The plant grazers occupy the second tropic level or primary consumer or herbivore level (all plant-grazing insects, cattle, deer, rabbits, etc. ).Flesh-eaters, that eat herbivores, form the third tropic level or the secondary consumer or carnivore level-1 (frogs, small fish, etc. ). The third tropic level is the tertiary consumer or carnivore level-2, which eats the flesh of herbivores and secondary consumers. In a similar fashion, tropic levels can be expanded based on the food habits of organisms. Charles Elton, a British ecologist, however, concluded that the number of links in a food chain rarely exceeds five, because in the process of energy transfer there is always the loss of energy to the environment.It is the energy transfer mechanism which determines the number of links in a food chain. Man and many other animals who are omnivores occupy different tropic levels in food chains in relation to pure carnivores. The food web maintains the stability of the eco-syst em. For example, green land can be grazed by different organisms like insects, rabbits, rodents, etc. The insects then can be eaten by frogs which can be eaten by snakes. Snakes can either be eaten by hawks
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The colonization of India and the immense transfer of wealth that moved from the latter to Britain were vital to the success of the British Empire. In fact, the Viceroy of British India in 1894 called India Ã¢â¬Å"the pivot of our Empire Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I examine the effects of the Industrial Revolution on the subcontinent. Besides highlighting the fact that without cheap labor and raw materials from India, the modernization of Britain during this era would have been highly unlikely, I will show how colonial policy led to the privation and death of millions of natives. I conclude that while India undoubtedly benefited from British colonial rule, the negatives for the subject population far outweighed the positives. . Colonialism, by definition, is exploitative and oppressive, with the rulers enriching themselves at the expense of those they rule. Generally speaking, colonizers dominate a territoryÃ¢â¬â¢s resources, labor force, and markets; oftentimes, they impose structures Ã¢â¬â cultural, religious and/or linguistic Ã¢â¬â to maintain control over the indigenous population. The effects of the expansion of European empires, which began in the 15th century, on the colonized can still be felt today. Some historians, for example, argue that colonialism is one of the leading causes in income inequality among countries in present times. They cite patterns of European settlement as determinative forces in the type of institutions developed in colonized countries, considering them major factors in economic backwardness. Economist Luis Angeles has argued that the higher the percentage of Europeans settling in a colony at its peak, the greater the inequality in that country so long as the settlers remained a minority, suggesting that the colonizers drained those lands of essential resources while reaping most, if not all, of the profits. In terms of per capita GDP in 1995, the 20 poorest countries were all former colonies, which would seem to bolster AngelesÃ¢â¬â¢ contention. There are, however, competing views on how much underdevelopment in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s poorest countries is a byproduct of colonial rule and how much of it is influenced by factors such as a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of natural resources or area characteristics. For poet, activist and politician Aime Cesaire, the verdict was in: Colonizers were Ã¢â¬Å"the decisive actors Ã¢â¬ ¦ the adventurer and the pirate, the wholesale grocer and the ship owner, the gold digger and the merchant, appetite and force, and behind them, the baleful projected shadow of a form of civilization which, at a certain point in its history, finds itself obliged, for internal reasons, to extend to a world scale the competition of its antagonistic economies. This is not to suggest that Western European nations were the first and only countries to pursue imperialistic policies or that nothing good came out of colonial policies for the subject population. Dinesh DÃ¢â¬â¢Souza, while arguing that colonialism has left many positive as well as negative legacies, has stressed that there is nothing uniquely Western about colonialism, writing: Ã¢â¬Å"Those who identify colonialism and empire only with the West either have no sense of history or have forgotten about the Egyptian empire, the Persian empire, the Macedonian empire, the Islamic empire, the Mongol empire, the Chinese empire, and the Aztec and Inca empires in the Americas. Ã¢â¬ For this paperÃ¢â¬â¢s purposes, however, I will focus on the British Empire, its colonizing efforts in India (1757-1947), and the effects British policy had on that subject population. A couple of caveats before examining the British-Indian relationship: experiences differed from colony to colony during this period of European imperialism; India was unique in the colonial experience because of its size and history. It also should be noted that India was rather unique among colonized lands during this era for at least two reasons. First, South Asia was Ã¢â¬Å"already a major player in world commerce and possessed a well-developed trading and financial worldÃ¢â¬ by the time Europeans arrived. Indigenous administrative structures already existed for taxation purposes, while commerce within the country and throughout the continent offered prospects of giant profits. Second, British India, which included todayÃ¢â¬â¢s India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, was a region so large that there were areas in which Britain exercised direct control over the subject population and others where it exerted indirect control. It is exceedingly difficult, therefore, to extrapolate from one experience to another. Although it is impossible to determine how India would have developed had England never established a dominating presence there, I find the results of British colonialism to have been a mixed bag for India: the negatives, however, far outweighed the positives. Liberal and democratic aspects of British colonialism in India played a significant role in leading to a democratic South Asia following Indian independence in 1947. Yet, the British Ã¢â¬â first through the East India Company and then through direct government control Ã¢â¬â held almost all of the political and economic power in India during the EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion and apogee, guaranteeing the Indian economy could not evolve and/or function independent of the ruling powerÃ¢â¬â¢s control; ensuring raw materials extracted from Indian soil would go towards British manufacturing industries mostly without profiting the vast majority of Indians; and leading to lives of privation for millions of indigenous subjects. Although there have been arguments made that, in political and economic terms, south Asia was backwards until the arrival of Europeans, recent research has debunked that myth, showing the region to have possessed healthy trading and financial structures prior to the EuropeansÃ¢â¬â¢ arrival. British Colonial Strategy in the Subcontinent Imperial powers followed two basic strategies when colonizing. They either allowed a large number of Europeans to settle overseas (known as Settler Colonies) or sent a much smaller number Ã¢â¬â usually less than 1 percent of the population Ã¢â¬â to serve as administrators and tax collectors (known as Peasant Colonies). Britain followed the latter strategy in regards to India. The percentage of English people in India in 1913, for example, was only 0. 1 percent of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population; by comparison, they accounted for over one-fifth (21. 4 percent) of the population in South Africa and Losetho during the same period. As previously mentioned, Britain exerted both direct and indirect control over the Indian subcontinent. Areas of indirect control are called Ã¢â¬Å"native states. These were controlled by Indian rulers who wielded considerable power over the internal administration of the land, while the British exercised complete control over the areaÃ¢â¬â¢s defense and foreign policies. When looking at this two-pronged approach Britain took in establishing an Indian colony, the economist Lakshmi Iyer has argued that there is a differential long-term effect on areas the Empire controlled directly compared to areas in which it basically outsourced control. Rather than expropriating Indian land, which was negligible, the English taxed Indian land, producing considerable revenues and inducing the indigenous population to shift from traditional to commercial products (e. g. tea). Areas that were directly under British control today have significantly lower levels of public goods relative to areas that were not under direct colonial rule. In 1961, for example, districts (administrative divisions below state level) that had been under direct control of the British Empire had lower levels of primary and middle schools, as well as medical dispensaries. Present-day differences between directly and indirectly controlled areas, Iyer argues, are most likely the result of differences in internal administration during the colonial period because once the British left in 1947, all the native states were integrated into independent India and have since been subject to a uniform administrative, legal and political structure. The Company and the Crown By the middle of the 18th century, there were five major European colonial powers Ã¢â¬â the Dutch Republic, France, Great Britain, Portugal, and Spain. From about 1850 on, however, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s overseas empire would be unrivaled; by 1901, the empire would encompass 11. 2 million square miles and rule about 400 million people. For much of the 19th and 20th centuries, India was BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s largest and economically most important colony, an Ã¢â¬Å"empire within an empire. Ã¢â¬ It should be noted that although this period coincided with the birth of the Industrial Revolution historians and economists have cast doubt on whether industrialization was the sine qua non for British imperialism. They have noted that EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s first major advance into the Indian subcontinent began in Bengal in the middle of the 18th century, long before large-scale mechanization turned Britain into the Ã¢â¬Å"workshop of the world. Ã¢â¬ Historian P. J. Marshall, in studying early British imperialism, has written: Ã¢â¬Å"As a blanket term the Industrial Revolution explains relatively little about British expansion in general at the end of the eighteenth century. Ã¢â¬ While Marshall and others may be correct in asserting the British would have pursued empire even without the Industrial Revolution, its advent impacted colonial policy in that it required expanded markets and a steady supply of raw materials to feed the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s manufacturing industries. Cotton, for example, was one of the driving forces behind the evolution of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s modern economy. British traders purchased raw cotton fibers from plantations, processed it into cotton cloth in Lancashire mills, and then exported them to the colonial markets including India. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, India had been the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s main producer of cotton textiles, with a substantial export trade. By the early nineteenth century, however, Britain had taken over dominating the world market for cotton textiles based on technology that lowered production costs . Ã¢â¬Å"This dramatic change in international competitive advantage during the Industrial Revolution was surely one of the key episodes in the Great Divergence of living standards between Europe and Asia. Ã¢â¬ BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s 200-year run ruling India began in the mid-17th century when the British East India Company set up trading posts in Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. In 1757, Robert Clive led Company-financed troops Ã¢â¬â led by British officers and staffed by native soldiers known as sepoys Ã¢â¬â in a victory over French-backed Indian forces. The victory at the Battle of Plassey made the East India Company the leading power in the country. It would dominate India for just over 100 years, the area it controlled growing over that time to encompass modern Bangladesh, a majority of southern India and most of the territory along the Ganges River in the north of the country. The East India CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s control of Bengal alone yielded taxes of nearly Ã £3 million; by 1818, its territorial revenues in India stood at Ã £22 million, allowing it to finance one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest standing armies. This established British rule well before the Industrial Revolution could have played any major role in Britain expanding its overseas empire, strengthening historiansÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Marshall, et al. Ã¢â¬â arguments regarding the significance, or lack thereof, of the role mechanization in England had in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s expansionist efforts. The fact remains, however, that Britain in the 19th century would become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading industrial power and India a major source of raw materials for its industry. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, the subcontinentÃ¢â¬â¢s population of 300 million would constitute a huge source of revenue and a gigantic market for British-made goods. Although, the English expanded gradually in India during those first 100 years of colonization, once the British government gained control of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s administration following the Indian War of Independence in 1857, India was virtually incorporated into the British Empire and became its Ã¢â¬Å"crown jewel. Ã¢â¬ During the life of the Britain Empire, India was its most profitable colony. Examples of huge returns on British investments in India based on surviving business records are plentiful. To give two examples: Binny and Co. , which was founded in 1799 with 50,000 rupees in capital, returned profits of 140,000 rupees only 12 years later; and William MackinnonÃ¢â¬â¢s Indian General Steam and Navigation Co. , which began trading in 1847 and whose assets five years later were valued at more than nine times the original capital of 72,000 rupees. The 1852 prospectus of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China stated that Ã¢â¬Å"bearing in mind the very high rate of interest which prevails in the East and the very lucrative nature of the Exchange Business Ã¢â¬ ¦ a very large Annual Dividend may be looked for with certainty. British investment in India increased enormously over the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. According to economist James Foreman-Peck, by the end of 1911, 373 stock companies were estimated to be carrying on business exclusively or almost exclusively in India, yet were registered elsewhere, with the average size of those companies (railways accounted for nearly half of the capital, and tea plantations about one-fifth) dwarfing the far more numerous Ã¢â¬â 2,463 Ã¢â¬â Indian-registered companies. The discrepancies between the two are stark. The companies registered outside India had paid-up capital of Ã¢â ¤77.979 million and debentures of Ã¢â ¤45.353 million compared to Ã¢â ¤46.251 million and Ã¢â ¤6 million, respectively, for Indian-registered companies. According to Foreman-Peck, Ã¢â¬Å"The magnitude of foreign investment and the rate of return on it, broadly defined, have been seen as a means by which empire imposed burdens on colonies and boosted the imperial nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Ã¢â¬ This was not an idea that could only be gleaned in hindsight. Writing at the end of the 19th century, historian Brooks Adams wrote the following: Ã¢â¬Å"Probably since the world began no investment has yielded the profit reaped from the Indian plunder. The amount of treasure wrung from the conquered people and transferred from India to English banks between Plassey and Waterloo (fifty-seven years) has been variously estimated at from $2,500,000,000 to $5,000,000,000. The methods of plunder and embezzlement by which every Briton in India enriched himself during the earlier history of the East India Company gradually passed away, but the drain did not pass away. The difference between the earlier day and the present is that IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s tribute to England is obtained by Ã¢â¬Ëindirect methodsÃ¢â¬â¢ under forms of law. It was estimated by Mr.Ã Hyndman some years ago that at least $175,000,000 is drained away every year from India without a centÃ¢â¬â¢s return. Ã¢â¬ Plunder and Famine At the time Britain established its colony on the subcontinent, the Indian economy was based predominantly on agriculture. Iyer has shown that since the Indian economy was so dependent on farming, British annexation policy focused on acquiring land with the most agricultural potential, guaranteeing that land taxation would be the East India CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s/British governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest source of income throughout the colonial period. In 1765-66, the East India Company had collected Ã¢â¬Å"the equivalent of Ã £1,470,000; and by 1790-1791, this figure had risen to Ã £2,680,000. Ã¢â¬ To ensure the land-revenue system, known as Ã¢â¬Å"tax farming,Ã¢â¬ would continue to supply money to the East India CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s treasury, the Company introduced the Permanent Settlement of Bengal in 1793, an agreement between it and absentee landlords, known as zaminders. Through this policy, peasants who worked the land became the tenants of the zaminders, who, for themselves and the tax collectors, extracted as much as possible from those who cultivated the land. This settlement created a class of Indian landowners loyal to the English and a division in the rural society between the tenants and landlords, which last well into the 20th century. Indian climate is characterized by the monsoon, which generally includes nine months of dry weather followed by three months of rains known as the monsoon. At least once in a decade, the monsoon fails to arrive and a drought occurs. Indians for centuries had set aside a portion of crops to ensure there would be adequate food in times of drought. This practice was so successful that between the 11th and 18th centuries, India experienced only 14 major famines; yet, from 1765-1858, when it was under East India Company control, India suffered through 16 major famines, followed by an average of one famine every two years under British Colonial Office rule from 1859-1914. Under British rule during the 18th century, over 25 million Indians died of famine between: 1 million between 1800 and 1825, 4 million between 1825 and 1850, 5 million between 1850 and 1875, and 15 million between 1875 and 1900 ; more than 30 million deaths occurred from famine between 1870 and1910. Why did tens of millions die from starvation under the East India Company and the British Raj? Why, comparatively speaking, did so many famines occur under BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s watch? Historian Laxman D. Satya argues the famines were price-induced and that timely government intervention could have prevented millions of deaths from starvation. State intervention was minimal, however; Lord Curzon acknowledged once that a famine in Indian excited no more attention in Britain than a squall on the Serpentine. Like other European imperialists in the late 18th century, Britain Ã¢â¬â first through the East India Company Ã¢â¬â followed a laissez-faire doctrine whereby government interference in the economy was anathema; in addition, famine later was seen as a natural way to control overpopulation. According to Satya, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ any act that would influence the prices of grains such as charity was to be either strictly monitored or discouraged. Even in the face of acute distress, relief had to be punitive and conditional. Ã¢â¬ The powers that be also began using famine labor to build an infrastructure Ã¢â¬â railways, roads Ã¢â¬â ensuring that revenues would continue to increase, expenditures would be kept low; worst of all, the new infrastructure allowed for the exportation of grain that could have fed the starving. Studies have shown that even in years of official famine Ã¢â¬â Britain only recognized three periods of famine Ã¢â¬â there was never a shortage of food grains. The problem was that with prices for grains so high and wages stagnant, most people could not afford to buy them. As an example, during the Indian Famine of 1887-88, nearly 44 percent of total exports from Berar, one of the hardest hit provinces, were food grains. Between 1874 and 1903 the province exported an average over 40 tons of grain, and Satya has shown that this could have amounted for nearly 30. pounds of food per person. Historian and social commentator Mike Davis has cited even evidence that grains were exported to Europe for speculative trading while millions were dying of starvation. Since the primary concern for the government was maximizing returns on investments, it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t prioritize famine relief, considering those expenditures wasteful; therefore, relief camps were Ã¢â¬Å"deliberately kept in remote locations and beyond the reach of the physically weakened population. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, people seeking relief were required to work on colonial projects as a condition for receiving food Ã¢â¬â as little as 16-22 ounces of food for a minimum of nine-10 hours of often grueling labor Fearing that Indian nationalists would take to the newspapers Ã¢â¬â in general, the government had a comparatively lax policy toward the press Ã¢â¬â the Raj implemented tight press control through various laws including the Newspaper Act of 1908 and the Indian Press Act of 1910. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to note that despite these and other attempts at press censorship, a large number of vernacular newspapers were published throughout the country and played an integral role in creating a nationalist/political consciousness in India.