## Wednesday, October 30, 2019

### Summarize & Critic on Torah (Pentateuch) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Summarize & Critic on Torah (Pentateuch) - Essay Example The saga moves from beyond external conflicts- Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Issac and Moses to resolving internal conflicts - following covenants and commandments and resolving age hold human dissatisfaction with what is available, rebellion and ultimate salvation by entering the promised land. The compilation of Pentateuch was done by multiple authors and over a period of six centuries. Friedman presents evidence why he believes this is so; for instance Friedman provides evidence of "Doublets", which are variations of the same story with some facts similar and others paralleling the other instance of same story. Friedman cites specific couplets and verses where such synchronicity has occurred. On the other hand terminology used parallel that of the doublet which it has followed - same set of names fall into same doublet. Thus the text of the Pentateuch can be demarcated into following discrete divisions: J (Jahwistic), E (Elohistic), P (Priestly) and D (Deuteronomic). Within these divisions common names and sequence, presence or absence of events can be clearly identified. Even linguistic parlance within the above divisions is strongly indicative of separate authorships for each of the divisions. The events as presented within each of the div... Historical references within each of the divisions identify the approximate time frame and time period in which they were compiled or written. Friedman has exhaustively listed specific references from where the time frame can be elicited, he proclaims that Priestly text dates back to (715-687 B.C), whereas Deuteronomic dates to the era of reign of Josiah the great grandson of Hezekiah. The linguistic classification and analysis has also reiterated that Jahwistic and Elohistic belong to an earlier era than Priestly and Deuteronomic. As far as the relationships between the divisions are concerned parallels of events are so close between Jahwistic and Elohistic indicating that were probably edited together. In Priestly stories the differences between it and Jahwistic Elohistic report a contradiction of one event by the other presentation as possibly an attempt to explain the consequences after event has happened. Deuteronomic includes references to passages in other divisions indicating that it is more dated than others. Another factor determining completeness is cohesion of Jahwistic Elohistic - both together form a nearly complete and continuous story where as separately each is incomplete. Similarly Priestly also forms a nearly complete section on its own. This indicates merging of Jahwistic Elohistic earlier with addition of Priestly at a later date. It also shows different mindsets of the editors who combined the separate texts as heavy editing of the Jahwistic Elohistic sources seems to have been done in order to ensure good fit while Priestly's addition was without heavy source editing. There are also theories that such explicit divisions are

## Thursday, October 24, 2019

### Pop Culture Essay Essay

There are many movie genres out today than there were before in earlier years. Movie genres are basically different types of movies, such as: horror, suspense, mystery, drama ,romance, etc. Today it seems that most peoples favorite movie genre is horrow or action. Action movies have a lot of different stuff in them that is pleasing to the eye. Action movies are typically loud and have a lot of fighting, racing, and adventurous things in the film. Horror movies on the other hand have a lot of scary things in the movies. Their big thing is that the more blood they have the better it is to the audience watching. Even though horror and action may be the top picks of the rest of the country, I have my own genre of movies that I particularly like the best. My favorite genre of movies is romance. In a romance based movie, it is filled with love and a lot of laughter throughout the whole movie. While most romance movies start off bad and end up with a happy ending, some start out good and end good as well. Most romance movies today start out being bad and then it ends up in the happy ending that you suspect from the title of the movie. Romance movies go through every movie genre there is. There is suspense and sometimes a little horror as well. Sometimes, and most of the time, they contain a lot of drama. The best romance movies are the ones full of drama that is fun to watch. Every woman around the world enjoys a good romance movie. Many women around the world love romance movies, including myself. Simply because they meet the cravings that every woman has sometime throughout their lives. Each and every romance movie touches a woman in some way or another. Every girl dreams of having that guy from a love story. They want them to be loving and caring and when we watch these movies we imagine ourselves being the girl in the movie. Some movies, even make a girl feel better after a breakup. However, some of the real love stories can make it worse than ever before. Also, romance movies will make you cry if it is one of those that are filled with sad moments throughout the whole movie. As a girl, sometimes we feel the need to cry, whether it is stress or PMS. TheÃ‚  romance movies are a good way to bring out the inner emotions and in the end, make you feel a whole lot better. Drama is another movie genre that gets included into romance movies. Drama can be funny and it can also bring out deeper thoughts and emotions. Everyone and especially women, have a fair share of their love for drama. Women like to gossip and chick flick, love stories are filled with it. Gossiping is a way to let things out and to give out information that can be bad or good. It just depends on who is saying it or what is said. The good thing is, the drama in the romance stories are usually not true. Even though we all get a good laugh at the stupid ones in the movie. In conclusion, romance genre movies are a favorite. They can make you happy or sad or bring out different emotions. Romance movies are twisted with drama along with romance to bring out laughter or anger in the audience. Everyone will have their own personal reaction to every single romance movie that comes out. Therefore, in my opinion, romance genre movies are the best because they contain many qualities that other genres do. Meaning that they satisfy almost every Ã¢â‚¬Å"cravingÃ¢â‚¬  that a person has for a good movie.

## Sunday, October 20, 2019

### SAT Trigonometry SOHCAHTOA and Radians

SAT Trigonometry SOHCAHTOA and Radians SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Trigonometry and radians are new additions to the SAT Math section! Do you love SOHCAHTOA and ${Ãâ‚¬}$ angle measurements? Do you hate trigonometry and radians and donÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t know what SOHCAHTOA or ${Ãâ‚¬}/{2}$ means? No matter how you feel about SAT trigonometry, there is no need to stress. In this guide, IÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ll let you know everything you need to know about trigonometry and radians for the SAT Math test and guide you through some practice problems. Trigonometric Formulas: Sine, Cosine, Tangent Although trigonometry makes up less than 5% of all math questions, you still want to get those questions right, and you won't be able to answer any trigonometry questions correctly without knowing the following formulas: Find the sine of an angle given the measures of the sides of the triangle. $$\sin(x)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}$$ In the figure above, the sine of the labeled angle would be ${a}/{h}$. Find the cosine of an angle given the measures of the sides of the triangle. $$\cos(x)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}$$ In the figure above, the cosine of the labeled angle would be ${b}/{h}$. Find the tangent of an angle given the measures of the sides of the triangle. $$\tan(x)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}$$ In the figure above, the tangent of the labeled angle would be ${a}/{b}$. A helpful memory trick is an acronym: SOHCAHTOA. Sine equals Opposite over Hypotenuse Cosine equals Adjacent over Hypotenuse Tangent equals Opposite over Adjacent You should also know the complementary angle relationship for sine and cosine, which is $\sin(xÃ‚ °)=\cos(90Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™xÃ‚ °)$. How to Apply Trigonometry Skills on SAT Math There are two main trigonometry questions types you'll see on the test. I'll teach you how to address each. Question type 1 will ask you to find the sine, cosine, or tangent and using the measures of the sides of the triangle. In order to answer these questions, you will need to use a diagram (that means drawing one if it's not given to you).Let's walk through this example: Triangle ABC is a right triangle where angle B measures 90Ã‚ °; the hypotenuse is 5 and side AB is 4. What is cosine A? First, set up this triangle using the given information: Then, identify the information you need. In this case, the question asked for the cosine A. We know, based on the previous formulas that $\cos(A)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}$. Identify the pieces you need: the angle, the adjacent side to the angle, and the hypotenuse: We have all the information we need, so we just need to put it into the formula: $\cos(A)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={4}/{5}$. ${4}/{5}$ is the answer. A slightly harder version of this question might ask you for sine A instead of cosine A. If you look back at the diagram, you'll notice we don't know what the measure of the opposite side to angle A is (which is what we need to find sine A). In that case, we need to use the Pythagorean theorem (or our knowledge of 3-4-5 right triangles) to find the measure of the opposite side to angle A (BC). $$BC=Ã¢Ë†Å¡{(5^2)-(4^2)}=Ã¢Ë†Å¡{(25)-(16)}=Ã¢Ë†Å¡{9}=3$$ Know that we know that side BC is 3,we just need to put it into the formula: $$\sin(A)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={3}/{5}$$ Question type 2will ask you to find the sine, cosine, or tangent of an angle using a different given sine, cosine, or tangent of an angle. Similarly to question type one,to answer these questions, you'll need to use a diagram (that means drawing one if it's not given to you). Check outthis example: In a right ABC triangle, where B is the right angle, $\cos(A)={4}/{5}$. What is the sin(C)? You want to attack these problems by drawing a diagram, but first you need to figure out what should go where. Use the cosine formula to figure out how to draw the diagram. $$\cos(A)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={4}/{5}$$ Meaure of adjacent side (AB) = 4 Measure of the hypotenuse (AC) = 5 You may notice it's the same triangle from the previous example. In this case, we want to find cosine C. We know, based on the previous formulas that $\sin(C)={Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle}/{Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse}$. Identify the pieces you need: the angle, the adjacent side to the angle, and the hypotenuse. $$\sin(C)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={4}/{5}$$ ${4}/{5}$ is the answer. A slightly harder version of this question might ask you for tangent C instead of sine C. If you look back at the diagram, you'll notice we don't know what the measure of the adjacent side to angle C is (which is what we need to find tan A). In that case, we need to use the Pythagorean theorem (or our knowledge of 3-4-5 right triangles) to find the measure of the adjacentside to angle C (BC). $$BC=Ã¢Ë†Å¡{(5^2)-(4^2)}=Ã¢Ë†Å¡{(25)-(16)}=Ã¢Ë†Å¡{9}=3$$ Know that we know that side BC is 3,we just need to put it into the formula: $$\tan(C)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}={4}/{3}$$ Now that we know how to apply the necessary formulas to tackle trig questions, letÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s try to apply them to some real SAT practice problems. SAT Trigonometry Practice Problems Example #1 Answer Explanation: Triangle ABC is a right triangle with its right angle at B. Therefore,AC is the hypotenuse of right triangle ABC, and AB andBC are the legs of right triangle ABC. According to the Pythagorean theorem, $$AB=Ã¢Ë†Å¡(202)Ã¢Ë†â€™(162)=Ã¢Ë†Å¡(400)Ã¢Ë†â€™(256)=Ã¢Ë†Å¡144=12$$ Since triangle DEF is similar to triangle ABC, with vertex F corresponding to vertex C, the measure of angle F equals the measure of angle C. Therefore, $\sinÃ¢â‚¬Å'F=\sinÃ¢â‚¬Å'C$. From the side lengths of triangle ABC, $\sin C={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={\AB}/{\AC}={12}/{20}={3}/{5}$. Therefore, $\sinÃ¢â‚¬Å'F={3}/{5}$. The final answer is ${3}/{5}$ or .6. Example #2 Answer Explanation: There are two ways to solve this. The quicker way is if you know the complementary angle relationship for sine and cosine, which is $\sin(xÃ‚ °)=\cos(90Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™xÃ‚ °)$. Therefore, $\cos(90Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™xÃ‚ °)={4}/{5}$ or 0.8. However, you can also solve this problem by constructing a diagram using the given information.ItÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s a right triangle (which it has to be to use sine/cosine), and the sine of angle x is ${4}/{5}$ if $\sine={\(opposite\: side)}/{\hypotenuse}$ then the opposite side is 4 long, and the hypotenuse is 5 long: Since two of the angles of the triangle are of measure xÃ‚ ° and 90Ã‚ °, the third angle must have the measure $180Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™90Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™xÃ‚ °=90Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™xÃ‚ °$. From the figure, $\cos(90Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™xÃ‚ °)$, which is equal the ${adjacent\: side}/{the\: hypotenuse}$, is also ${4}/{5}$ or 0.8. Example #3 Answer Explanation: Similarly to the other trigonometry problem, there are two ways to solve this problem. The quicker way is to realize that x and y are complementary angles (add up to 90Ã‚ °). Then, using the complementary angle relationship for sine and cosine, which is $\sin(xÃ‚ °)=\cos(90Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™xÃ‚ °)$, you realize that $\cos(yÃ‚ °)=0.6$. However, you can also solve this problem by constructing a diagram using the given information. ItÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s a right triangle (which it has to be to use sine/cosine), and the sine of angle x is 0.6. Therefore, the ratio of the side opposite the xÃ‚ ° angle to the hypotenuse is .6. The side opposite the xÃ‚ ° angle is the side adjacent to the yÃ‚ ° angle. $\cos(yÃ‚ °)={\(the\: side\: adjacent\: to\: the\: yÃ‚ °\: angle)}/{\(the\: hypotenuse)}={6}/{10}$, is equal to .6. The answer is 0.6. Radians Radians will only account for a small portion (around 5%) of SAT math questions, but you still want to get those questions right! Radians are one of the trickier concepts. What do you need to know about radian measure? Definition of Radian Measure The bare bones definition: Radian is a measure of an angle (just as degree is a measure of angle). The in-depth/conceptual version: Radian is a measure of an angle that is based on the length of the arc that the angle intercepts on the unit circle. That sounds like gibberish I know. Let me break it down. A unit circle is a circle with a radius of 1 unit. See picture: Gustavb/Wikimedia The circumference (or length around) this unit circle is ${2Ãâ‚¬}$, since ${C=2Ãâ‚¬r}$, and r=1. If the measure of an angle were 360Ã‚ °, the radian measure would be ${2Ãâ‚¬}$ since the length of the arc that the 360Ã‚ ° angle intercepts on the unit circle would be the whole circumference of the circle (which we already established was ${2Ãâ‚¬}$).Here are some good basic radian measures to have memorized: Degrees Radians (exact) 30Ã‚ ° ${Ãâ‚¬}/{6}$ 45Ã‚ ° ${Ãâ‚¬}/{4}$ 60Ã‚ ° ${Ãâ‚¬}/{3}$ 90Ã‚ ° ${Ãâ‚¬}/{2}$ How to Convert Between Angle Measure in Degrees and Radians To go from degrees to radians, you need to multiply by ${Ãâ‚¬}$, divide by 180Ã‚ °.Here is how to convert 90Ã‚ ° to radians: $${90Ã‚ °Ãâ‚¬}/{180Ã‚ °}$$ $$={Ãâ‚¬}/{2}$$ To go from radians to degrees, you need to multiply by 180Ã‚ °, divide by ${Ãâ‚¬}$.Here is how to convert ${Ãâ‚¬}/{4}$ to degrees: $${({Ãâ‚¬}/{4})(180Ã‚ °)}/{Ãâ‚¬}$$ $$={({180Ã‚ °Ãâ‚¬}/{4})/{Ãâ‚¬}$$ $$=45Ã‚ °$$ How to Evaluate Trigonometric Functions at Benchmark Angle Measures The benchmark angle measures (as defined by the College Board) are 0, ${Ãâ‚¬}/{6}$, ${Ãâ‚¬}/{4}$, ${Ãâ‚¬}/{3}$, ${Ãâ‚¬}/{2}$ radians which are equal to the angle measures 0Ã‚ °, 30Ã‚ °, 45Ã‚ °, 60Ã‚ °, and 90Ã‚ °, respectively. You need to be able to use these with the trigonometric functions described in the above trigonometry section (sine, cosine, and tangent).You will not be asked for values of trigonometric functions that require a calculator. Remember, the complementary angle relationship for sine and cosine, which is $\sin(xÃ‚ °)=\cos(90Ã‚ °Ã¢Ë†â€™xÃ‚ °)$ will be $\sin(x)=\cos({Ãâ‚¬}/{2}Ã¢Ë†â€™x)$ when converted into radians. SAT Radians Practice Problems Example #1 Answer Explanation: The correct answer is 6. By the distance formula, the length of radius OA is $Ã¢Ë†Å¡{((Ã¢Ë†Å¡3)^2)+(1^2)}=Ã¢Ë†Å¡{3+1}=Ã¢Ë†Å¡{4}=2$. Thus, $\sin(Ã¢Ë† AOB)={1}/{2}$. Therefore Ã¢Ë†  AOB is 30Ã‚ °, which is equal to $30({Ãâ‚¬}/{180})={Ãâ‚¬}/{6}$ radians. Hence, the value of a is 6. Example #2 Answer Explanation: A complete rotation around a point is 360Ã‚ ° or ${2Ãâ‚¬}$ radians. Since the central angle AOB has measure ${5Ãâ‚¬}/{4}$radians, it represents$/{2Ãâ‚¬}={5}/{8}$of a complete rotation around point O. Therefore, the sector formed by central angle AOB has area equal to ${5}/{8}$the area of the entire circle. The answer is ${5}/{8}$ or in decimal form .625. Example #3 Which of the following is equivalent to $\cos({3Ãâ‚¬}/{10})$? A) $\-cos ({Ãâ‚¬}/{5})$B) $\sin ({7Ãâ‚¬}/{10})$C)$\-sin ({Ãâ‚¬}/{5})$D)$\sin ({Ãâ‚¬}/{5})$ Answer Explanation: To answer this question correctly, you need to both understand trigonometry and radians. Sine and cosine are related by the equation $\sin(x)=\cos({Ãâ‚¬}/{2}-x)$. In order to find out what the equivalent to $\cos({3Ãâ‚¬}/{10})$is, you need to change ${3Ãâ‚¬}/{10}$ into the form ${Ãâ‚¬}/{2}-x$. To do that, you need to set up an equation: $${3Ãâ‚¬}/{10}= {Ãâ‚¬}/{2}-x$$ Then, solve for x. $${3Ãâ‚¬}/{10}-{Ãâ‚¬}/{2}=-x$$ $${3Ãâ‚¬}/{10}-{5Ãâ‚¬}/{10}=-x$$ $$-{2Ãâ‚¬}/{10}=-x$$ $${2Ãâ‚¬}/{10}=x$$ $${Ãâ‚¬}/{5}=x$$ Therefore, $\cos({3Ãâ‚¬}/{10})=\cos({Ãâ‚¬}/{2}-{Ãâ‚¬}/{5})=\sin({Ãâ‚¬}/{5})$. D is the correct answer. Test Yourself on SAT Trigonometry Questions! Practice #1 In triangle DCE, the measure of angle C is90Ã‚ °, $\DC=5$ and $\CE=12$. What is the value of $\sin(D)$? Practice #2 In a right triangle, $\cos({Ãâ‚¬}/{2}-x)={6}/{8}$. What is $\sin(x)$? Practice #3 In circle O, central angle AOB has a measure of ${3Ãâ‚¬}/{4}$ radians. The area of the sector formed by central angle AOB is what fraction of the area of the circle? Answers: #1: ${12}/{13}$, #2: ${6}/{8}$, 3) ${3}/{8}$ WhatÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Next? Now that you know how to handle trigonometry and radians, make sure youÃ¢â‚¬â„¢re prepared for all of the other math topics you'll see on the SAT. All of our math guides will take you through strategies and practice problems for all the topics covered on the math section, from integersto ratios, circles to polygons (and more!). Feeling anxious about test day? Make sure you know exactly what to do and bring to ease your mind and settle your nerves before it's time to take your SAT. Running out of time on the SAT math section? Look no further than our guide to help you beat the clock and maximize your SAT math score. Angling to get a perfect score? Check out our guide to getting a perfect 800, written by a perfect-scorer. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Math strategy guide, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

## Saturday, October 19, 2019

### Priority Health Issue Report and Critical Analysis of Health Promotion Essay

Priority Health Issue Report and Critical Analysis of Health Promotion Initiatives - Essay Example Third is through the use of a priority area to be determined by examining the cost to individuals and the community. A higher cost will imply a higher level of prevalence (Diabetes Australia & Australian Diabetes Society, 1988). Potential to change is also a method that may be used. Having evaluated the health status of the country, the government has pinpointed the following health priority issues. First are the groups that are currently experiencing some forms of health inequities. Second are the rapidly increasing levels of preventable chronic diseases such as mental complications, cardiovascular diseases, permanent disability and increased mortality rate. Third are the growing and the ageing population, as AustraliaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s life expectancy rate continues to increase. The Australian health care system has made great contributions in the improvement and maintenance of good health status for the Australians. The healthcare system works with the government to fund the healthcare of public and private bodies. This is in addition to rehabilitation, treatment and diagnosis systems. The system has also extended its cover to all citizens and people can now participate in private health insurance to extend their healthcare coverage. AustraliaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s healthcare system has also focused on improve technology to better their services to the people. To improve the health status, the Australian healthcare system in collaboration with the federal government has put in place professional and regulatory associations that look on the credibility and applicability of the laid down healthcare approaches and their benefit to the public (Scoggins, RAND Europe, & Rand Corporation, 2008). To address AustraliaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s health priorities, various actions will be of great importance. First is the use of the public health approach through what has been defined as

## Friday, October 18, 2019

### How i plan to study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

How i plan to study - Essay Example [Author not known1, 2005].The first step of my study plan is to diligently attend all the lectures pertaining to my subject and try to seek clarification in case of any doubts regarding the topic discussed . The next step is to identify the important points . I will capture the main ideas in the form of notes. [Landsberger, 2005]. I will utilize mind-mapping technique because it is an effective tool of taking notes. It is a technique of taking notes through key words and images. This method helps in quick jotting down of relevant information and is an effective method to remember and review the contents of the lectures. In mind mapping technique, the sentences and paragraphs will be represented in the form of key words and images. Circle the most important word represented by symbol or phrase. Write the related topic outside the circle close to each other. Gradually, the map expands in the direction the topic navigates. This helps the topic in being more specific or detailed. [Landsberger, 2005] Thirdly, I will link and cross-reference key words and images utilized in the mind maps. [Author not known2, 2005]. This will help me to relate to the key notes, phrases, questions and images mentioned in the notes. Fourthly, I will memorize the contents learnt in the classroo

### Operations and Supply Chain Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Operations and Supply Chain Management - Essay Example His model had classified government policies and regulations, corporate policies and firm size as moderating variables. Literature Review: Australian Manufacturing and Service Market Studies carried out to survey the service delivery have shown that the public sector has undergone significant reforms to meet public expectation on its performance. The government had addressed this through microeconomic reforms that were characterized by financial deregulation, improved monetary and fiscal policy, tariff reforms, labor market reform, and trade liberalization amongst others (Shergold, 1996, p. 18 and James, 2003, p. 96). In the later years, however, there was a shift to privatization of service delivery to NGOs and private sector (Tang, 1997, p. 98; Productivity Commission 1999. p. 6; Lyons, 1994, p. 182; James, 2003, p. 105 and Rapper, 2000, p. 23). Surveys carried out in Australia to determine whether government should outsource health services for an improved service delivery found o ut that there is the likelihood of poor performance in terms of quality, cost, and other externalities (Boardman and Hewitt, 2004, p. 921). This had left the house undecided on whether to privatize service delivery in this sector or not. Surprisingly, studies conducted to determine delivery speed and delivery reliability found transportation is very fast and reliable but quite expensive. The study shows that Australian gross value added of the transport and storage sector was $34, 496 million in 1999-2000. This was 5.6% of GDP. On comparison to other logistic costs, transportation occupies 29.4% of logistics cost, exceeding even warehousing cost, packing cost, management cost ordering cost and movement cost (Chang, 1998, p. 15 and BTRE, 2001, p. 9). Similarly,... Study has shown that the public sector has undergone significant reforms to meet public expectation on its performance. The government had addressed this through microeconomic reforms that were characterized by financial deregulation, improved monetary and fiscal policy, tariff reforms, labor market reform, and trade liberalization amongst others. In the later years, however, there was a shift to privatization of service delivery to NGOs and private sector. Surveys carried out in Australia to determine whether government should outsource health services for an improved service delivery found out that there is the likelihood of poor performance in terms of quality, cost, and other externalities. This had left the house undecided on whether to privatize service delivery in this sector or not. Surprisingly, studies conducted to determine delivery speed and delivery reliability found transportation is very fast and reliable but quite expensive. The study shows that Australian gross value added of the transport and storage sector was$ 34, 496 million in 1999-2000. This was 5.6% of GDP. On comparison to other logistic costs, transportation occupies 29.4% of logistics cost, exceeding even warehousing cost, packing cost, management cost ordering cost and movement cost. Similarly, studies conducted on new product introduction in the Australian market suggested that the rate of success of new products depends on the following: management style, marketing strategies, staff expertise, senior management support, available resources, organization size and distribution channels.

## Thursday, October 17, 2019

### Science fiction Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Science fiction - Term Paper Example Just like the 1950s and 1960s when dangers from nuclear war and fascination with UFOs (Unidentified Flying Object) led many science fiction movies produced on the theme (such as Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ2001: A Space OdysseyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ in 1968), so is the case in the last decade or so with global warming. Scientists, writers, and movie directors have all shown considerable interest in exploring the aftermath of the event of global warming. Ã¢â‚¬ËœDay After TomorrowÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ by Roland Emmerich is one such movie, which according to Lichtenfeld, takes us from the Ã¢â‚¬ËœCold WarÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ to a Ã¢â‚¬ËœWar on Cold.Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Wildmoon; Leiserowitz, 23) The paper discusses the different aspects of this science fiction movie with a note of impending warning to the society. The movie shows the devastating consequence of climate change that may appear to many as just a fantasy. In the movie, there are scenes of abrupt breakdown of the Greenland ice sheet, producing a 1000-feet- high tsunami smashing into New York. The movie did generate another wave of discussion over the issue of climate change and turned into one of the most successful box office hit The movie narrates the tale of Jack Hall (climatologist at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)) as he survives the breakdown of a colossal ice shelf flouting off Antarctica and returns to his work with a warning about the chances of a sudden and sharp climate change because of global warming. Few weeks after Dr. Hall has submitted his theory, scientists at North Atlantic thermohaline circulation system find that the system is briskly closing down. Thermohaline Circulation (THC) denotes part of the extensive ocean circulation that is driven by density gradients generated by surface temperature and freshwater fluidity. There are some conjectures that global warming might, by way of a slowdown or shutdown, activate localized freezing in the North Atlantic and lead to cooler

### Staff Development Plan Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Staff Development Plan - Personal Statement Example So basically I have to be highly skilled and provide interaction and engagement. Also in order to effectively develop my staff I have to be familiar with the content that is what is being taught in class rooms and the context that is the environment in which this content is delivered and the issues surrounding this content. It is only when I know what areas need development would I be able to suggest and bring about a change. (NSDC, 2008) Although I do encourage my staff to attend seminars, orientations and work shops but in addition I have now planned on introducing job embedded development as it is a professional learning experience that relates to the teachers daily work. Job embedded development is a more effective type of staff development as it connected to what the educator is doing in class on a daily basis so teachers can practically apply what they have learned which in turns help sustain their learning. Some of the main characteristics of job embedded development are teachers working together in groups and holding regular meetings. Research shows that these development activities lead to better problem solving as the problems that exist with in the school are better solved by those who work there and have a one on one interaction with the students. Also teachers working in groups get to analyze the students work more carefully and thus result in an overall increase in student achievement. (Galloway, n.d.) I would also want to help my staff develop through coaching and on job instruction and for that purpose I will appoint staff developers. According to researches staff developers have a huge impact on what students and teachers learn. Staff developers can work with the teachers to increase student achievements, to reach the goals of student improvement programs and to provide on going coaching to teachers who are struggling or teachers who want to enhance certain skills. In my opinion the best thing about staff developers is that they are not in evaluating positions and thus the teachers will be encouraged to be open and honest with them about their problems and weaknesses and in this way a more effective development can take place. (Galloway, n.d.) I would also encourage distributed leadership rather than a top down approach. I would encourage interaction between teachers, students and my self not only with in the school but also with other schools, I would also encourage the parents to participate in order to facilitate better learning and development. I would be open to suggestions brought in by the teachers, the parents and even the students. I would give students and teachers a chance to voice their opinions. I will hold regular meeting with the staff and coaches so as to always be in sync with the progress that is taking place. And I would also arrange regular meetings with the parents and students so that they can also be involved in the development process. (NSDC, 2008) Apart from all the above I would encourage regular assessments to be held in the form of closed book quizzes or tests. Theses quizzes would be made up of fill in the blanks, MCQS and short questions that would require the students to recall what they learned in class. These quizzes would facilitate in students as well as teacher learning. Based on the results of the quiz teachers would have an idea of the concepts that the whole class collectively has a problem with and

## Wednesday, October 16, 2019

### Science fiction Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Science fiction - Term Paper Example Just like the 1950s and 1960s when dangers from nuclear war and fascination with UFOs (Unidentified Flying Object) led many science fiction movies produced on the theme (such as Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ2001: A Space OdysseyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ in 1968), so is the case in the last decade or so with global warming. Scientists, writers, and movie directors have all shown considerable interest in exploring the aftermath of the event of global warming. Ã¢â‚¬ËœDay After TomorrowÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ by Roland Emmerich is one such movie, which according to Lichtenfeld, takes us from the Ã¢â‚¬ËœCold WarÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ to a Ã¢â‚¬ËœWar on Cold.Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Wildmoon; Leiserowitz, 23) The paper discusses the different aspects of this science fiction movie with a note of impending warning to the society. The movie shows the devastating consequence of climate change that may appear to many as just a fantasy. In the movie, there are scenes of abrupt breakdown of the Greenland ice sheet, producing a 1000-feet- high tsunami smashing into New York. The movie did generate another wave of discussion over the issue of climate change and turned into one of the most successful box office hit The movie narrates the tale of Jack Hall (climatologist at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)) as he survives the breakdown of a colossal ice shelf flouting off Antarctica and returns to his work with a warning about the chances of a sudden and sharp climate change because of global warming. Few weeks after Dr. Hall has submitted his theory, scientists at North Atlantic thermohaline circulation system find that the system is briskly closing down. Thermohaline Circulation (THC) denotes part of the extensive ocean circulation that is driven by density gradients generated by surface temperature and freshwater fluidity. There are some conjectures that global warming might, by way of a slowdown or shutdown, activate localized freezing in the North Atlantic and lead to cooler

## Tuesday, October 15, 2019

### Case study Corporate social responsibility and NGOs ( International Essay

Causes And Effects Of Market Failure Economics Essay In relation of the market performance, many things are well done, but not everything is done well. First of all, we assumed that markets are competitive. In some markets, a buyer or sellers might be having a right to control market prices. This ability to influence prices is called market power. Market power can cause markets to be inefficient because it keeps the price and quantity away from the stability of supply and demand. Market failure happen when resources are inefficiently allocated due to imperfections in the market structure , in the world the decisions of buyers and sellers sometimes affect people who are not participants in the markets at all. Pollution is the classic example of a market outcome that affects peoples not in the market such side effects called externalities. Market power and externalities are examples of a general phenomenon called market failure. When market fail public policy can potentially remedy the problem and increase economic efficiency. In this ca se; governments will interference where some form of market failure is taking part. Allocate efficiency means good resource allocation, when we cannot make any consumer better off without making some other consumer worse off. Moreover, an allocation of resources that maximizes the sum of consumer and producer surplus is said to be efficient. The balance of supply and demand maximizes the sum of consumer and producer surplus. That is, the invisible hand of the marketplace leads buyers and sellers to allocate resources. Markets do not allocate resources efficiently in the presence of market failures such as market power or externalities. Policymakers are often concerned with the efficiency as well as the equity of economic outcomes. This approach looks at the given resources and tries to get the most output from them and it also means that firms sell at a fair price to consumers that reflect the real resource use. Market failure is a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficientlywhen freely-functioning markets, operating without government intervention . Therefore, economic effiency welfare may not be maximized. This will leads to a loss of economic efficiency. When market fail, government policy intervention can potentially remedy the problem and increase economic efficiency, may also lead to an inefficient allocation of resources. Causes of Market Failure Public Goods Public goods are properties or facilities that can be used up by many consumers instantaneously without reducing the worth of consumption to any consumers. Therefore, public good is non-rival and non-excludable. That is a consumer cannot be stopped from consuming the good whether or not the individual pays for it. Realistically, non-rival means that the individual demand curves are summed perpendicularly to get the aggregate demand curve for the public good if each of those consumers has a demand curve for a public good (shown as the Figure 7.1). Consider Good with Identical Aggregate Demand is a public good. (i.e., Moon Lakes Water Quality) Figure 7.1 Mounting Aggregate Demand for Public Good Aggregate demand is summed vertically of individual demand curves in the market for a public good. The summed vertically of individual demand curves because all individuals can enjoy a similar public good. Hence, for every marginal unit of Moon Lakes water quality: aggregate demand = the total of consumer value for the unit Non-Rival and Market Failure Figure 7.3 Public Good: showed that the market price is not always in an efficiency condition because the a public good is never used up. Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ P=MC cannot be the equilibrium price of water quality because the individuals would not spend for any improvement in water quality. Individual would only spend for Q2, and because of Q2 level of water quality would not be met. Thus, the social optimum solution would be to offer Q* and charge each individual a unit price same to the individuals marginal value at Q* or P1* and P2*. The higher demand of consumer will spend a larger amount than the consumer with a lower willingness to spend for the goods or services (refers to the shaded areas). The reasons of inefficiency occurs in supplying public goods is that, unlike price, quantity is not an effective market mechanism: Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ For a given quantity, individuals will not automatically self-select their optimal price, but will instead wish to pay the lowest price possible when they cannot be excluded from consuming the good. Non-Excludability and Market Failure The primary cause of market failure involving public goods is non-excludable. Non-excludability means that the producer of a public good cannot prevent individuals from consuming it. Non-excludability is a relative, not an absolute, characteristic of most public goods. A good is usually termed non-excludable if the costs of excluding individuals from consuming the good are very high. Private markets always under produce non-excludable public goods because individuals have the incentive to free ride, or to not pay for the advantages they get from consuming the public good. With a free-rider problem, private firms cannot earn sufficient revenues from selling the public good to induce them to produce the socially optimal level of the public good. Figure 7.4 Optimal Provision of a Non-excludable Public Good, The Free-Rider Problem, and Market Failure PubD1 = Demand of one individual for public good X. D2 = Total Demand of two individuals for public good X. D3 = Total Demand of three individuals for public good X. D4 = Total Demand of four individuals for public good X. MC = Marginal cost of providing the public good X. The socially optimal level of public good X with four consumers is X4. (Note that the optimal level of the public good with a very large number of individuals is X max.) Because of non-excludability, markets may fail to provide X4.Under private markets, each individual may wait for the others to purchase the public good so that he/she can free-ride. In this case, the private market may provide no public good, because no one is willing to purchase it. For example, if individual decides to purchase (and the others free-ride), the private market will provide a level of the public good equal to X1, where the marginal benefit of the purchasing individual equals to the marginal cost of producing the public good. Notice that this is much less than the optimal level of provision of the public good, X4. Cause of market failure Market Failure is when a good is either over or under produced in a free market due to its externalities or other properties. This means that its ability to be used by more than one person at the same time, without any extra costs, makes it an unsuitable good to be produced by commercial suppliers. When demand is lowered, less will be produced, making the market fail. For an example, when a government subsidies for everyone to have enough of certain good or service, this is a market failure because demand still exists but supply is no longer limited for everyone who gets that product. Externalities are usually in all field of economic activity. Externalities are defined as third party or spill-over, the effects of production and consumption activities not directly reflected in the market. Negative externalities causes market failure because the graphs have failed to measure true products within the society. Failed to allocate resources efficiently and has overproduced goods with negative spillover effects. Negative externalities For example, the consumption of gasoline produces a negative externality in that people who do not use it (own a car) share the costs of the air pollution for which it is responsible. Negative externalities are also property rights problems. Social cost is equal to private cost to the firm of producing the gasoline plus the external cost to those bystanders affected by the pollution. Therefore, social cost exceeds the private cost paid by producers. . Price Social Cost Supply (private cost) Demand (private value) Q optimum Qmarket Quantity Figure 1 Figure 1 shows, the supply curve does not reflect the true cost of producing gasoline, the market will produce more gasoline than is optimal. Solving the negative externalities problem Top of Form Bottom of Form Government develop a product price via using taxes onto the consumption of that particular good. Due to the increase of taxation, consumption will decrease because fewer people will be willing to buy at a higher price, since the tax on the product may be more expensive than before. Furthermore, when the tax is increasing, this will cause the businesses to compete with each other on their prices. On the other hand, there might be some underground business causes products are expensive. The government can particularly tax certain private parties to reduce the amount of marginal private cost in order for it to equal to the marginal social cost for a negative production externality. By taxing a party, they will have a higher cost when producing their goods. Taxation can also provide a source of payment for public goods. e.g. we wouldnt have roads without taxes to pay for them. When a good has a positive externality, the government will often create a subsidy to reduce the effects of a ma rket failure. This means that the government will give money to the party that produces this positive externality, in order to encourage production. When subsidies are given, the producers have more money to produce their goods. This will increase production, bringing the marginal private benefits closer to marginal social benefits, decreasing the positive externality, and thus stopping market failure. One of the reasons contributing to a market failure is the unequal separation of market power. Market power means how strong is the firms influence on the market outcome, for example, the price of a good. Among all possible market condition, the one with most unequal market power would the monopoly market. A monopoly market means that the market has only one producer producing the goods, there is no other source of same or similar goods in the market. In this case, the particular producer would have absolute power to manipulate the price of the good in the market because consumers have no other choice but to buy the goods from that monopoly firm. The worst situation occurs when the goods sold in this particular market is basic necessary goods for the public, this is because the Price Elasticity of Demand (PED) for the good is so low, that the market would not be able to respond to the drastic change of price, if there is any. Price Quantity Q 0 S1 S2 DD S1 shift to S2 6 8 9 5 Figure 1 Figure 1 show that, the effects on the market outcomes when the demand curve is inelastic and supply curve is shifting to the left (from S1 to S2). The total expense increases from $40 to$45 after the firm raises the price from $5 to$9, even though the quantity traded decreases from 8 units to 6 units. If the market were a competitive market, such situation will not happen because as soon as the producer increases the price of good, consumers would switch their consumption onto similar goods produced by other producers in the market. When there is a market failure, government is then needed to interfere and hence improve the market outcome. A good way to prevent monopolization of an industry is via taking legal actions, for example, in South Korea, a Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act is introduced on 31/12/1980. The act was introduced to promote competition among firms and to protect the consumers in the country, hence providing the country a stable and balanced development o economics. Under this act, any company that attempts to combine with another company, regardless the process is done through merging, acquisition of stocks, business take-over, or any other method would be considered as breaking the law and legal actions would be taken by the government. This particular government policy would have a great effect on stopping markets to develop into oligopoly market or a monopoly market, however, in some cases the government actually gave a company the power to monopolize the business. In Malaysia, an el ectricity supplying company called Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) was appointed by the government to be the only official electricity supplier in the country, this was due to the high entry bounty and maintenance fees to run an electricity supplying company, companies other than TNB were unable to bear the high cost and hence the government appointed TNB as the only electricity supplier in the country and subsidy was provided to the company to reduce the cost. Of course in this case another law called price ceiling was applied to control the price of electricity bills in the country, and to prevent exploitation of the company on the residents in the country. Government Policies Price Control Price control is government interference in markets in which lawful restrictions are located on the prices charged. The two primary forms of price control are price floor and price ceiling. Price ceiling is a legal maximum on the price at which a good be sold. Price floor is a legal minimum on the price at which a good can be sold. Price controls enforced on an otherwise proficient and competitive market create imbalances (shortage or surplus) which leadineffectiveness. However, enforcing price controls on a market that fails to reachproficient (due to public goods, externalities, or incomplete information) can actual riseefficiency. Price controls have widely used to decrease inflation in economy. -Price Ceiling Figure 8.1 Pricing and quantity effects of a binding price ceiling on Rental From the figure 8.1, an equilibrium, Eo is occurs when supply curve intersects with demand curve in the free market. The initial price on rental is Po and quantity is Qo when the equilibrium is occurs. Rental control is a price ceiling on rent. According to rental control in New York, when the government enforced maximum price is lower than markets equilibrium price, as shown by the binding price ceiling in figure 8.1. Graphically, the price of rental decrease from Po to P1. Sellers can no longer charge the price the market demands but are forced to meet the ceiling price set by the government. A ceiling price can make sellers away from the market (decreases the supplied resources), while the lower price increases the consumers demand. Hence, the quantity of supply reduces from Qo to Q1 while the quantity of demand increases from Qo to Q2. When DD>SS, the ceiling is a binding constraint on the price and causes a shortages. A number of consumers willing to experience a long line for the product when they need to purchase. Sometimes governments merge price ceilings with government rationing programs to ensure the market will allocate the supply of goods efficiently. -Price Floors Figure 8.2 Pricing and quantity effects of a price floor on Wage Minimum Wage is approaching record lows in the United States. If no one earns any money except for one person, who earns all of the money, then the income distribution would be perfectly unequal. Governments make an effort to stop the poor from getting poorer, and the rich from getting richer in order to achieve an equilibrium in income distribution. Minimum wage laws have its greatest impact on the market for unskilled workers. Minimum Wage is one of the price floors in market. Minimum wage laws establish the lowest price of wages that all employers must pay for labor. The quantity of supplied labor is higher than the quantity demanded in the traditional minimum wage model. According to the figure 8.2, Minimum wage, P2 is above equilibrium price, Po and quantity, Qo when supply curve intersect with demand curve. Labor supplied and labor demanded can be prevented from shifting toward equilibrium price and quantity. Hence, surplus is occurs between quantity of demand, Q1 and quantity of supply, Q2. Minimum wage levels become the price floor and wages cannot fall below the floor price. Conclusion