Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Summarize & Critic on Torah (Pentateuch) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Summarize & Critic on Torah (Pentateuch) - Essay Example The saga moves from beyond external conflicts- Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Issac and Moses to resolving internal conflicts - following covenants and commandments and resolving age hold human dissatisfaction with what is available, rebellion and ultimate salvation by entering the promised land. The compilation of Pentateuch was done by multiple authors and over a period of six centuries. Friedman presents evidence why he believes this is so; for instance Friedman provides evidence of "Doublets", which are variations of the same story with some facts similar and others paralleling the other instance of same story. Friedman cites specific couplets and verses where such synchronicity has occurred. On the other hand terminology used parallel that of the doublet which it has followed - same set of names fall into same doublet. Thus the text of the Pentateuch can be demarcated into following discrete divisions: J (Jahwistic), E (Elohistic), P (Priestly) and D (Deuteronomic). Within these divisions common names and sequence, presence or absence of events can be clearly identified. Even linguistic parlance within the above divisions is strongly indicative of separate authorships for each of the divisions. The events as presented within each of the div... Historical references within each of the divisions identify the approximate time frame and time period in which they were compiled or written. Friedman has exhaustively listed specific references from where the time frame can be elicited, he proclaims that Priestly text dates back to (715-687 B.C), whereas Deuteronomic dates to the era of reign of Josiah the great grandson of Hezekiah. The linguistic classification and analysis has also reiterated that Jahwistic and Elohistic belong to an earlier era than Priestly and Deuteronomic. As far as the relationships between the divisions are concerned parallels of events are so close between Jahwistic and Elohistic indicating that were probably edited together. In Priestly stories the differences between it and Jahwistic Elohistic report a contradiction of one event by the other presentation as possibly an attempt to explain the consequences after event has happened. Deuteronomic includes references to passages in other divisions indicating that it is more dated than others. Another factor determining completeness is cohesion of Jahwistic Elohistic - both together form a nearly complete and continuous story where as separately each is incomplete. Similarly Priestly also forms a nearly complete section on its own. This indicates merging of Jahwistic Elohistic earlier with addition of Priestly at a later date. It also shows different mindsets of the editors who combined the separate texts as heavy editing of the Jahwistic Elohistic sources seems to have been done in order to ensure good fit while Priestly's addition was without heavy source editing. There are also theories that such explicit divisions are

Monday, October 28, 2019

A Review of the Communication and Leadership in Jusco Essay Example for Free

A Review of the Communication and Leadership in Jusco Essay The relationship is set up when the company regular operation. With the company growing, it will have more and more employees. So communication and leadership is really important. The relationship is harmony so that the employees will more effective, communication is fully reflected whether good or bad of the relationship between employees and employers. Leadership has a big role in here. We define leadership as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness. We need leaders today to challenge the status quo, create visions of the future, and inspire organizational members to want to achieve the visions. (Stephen P. Robbins, 1998). Leadership is a management which manage staff to do the business, and make it clearly and more effective. 2. 1 Background of Jusco With Diaoyu Dao event came out, the relationship between Japan and China is become worse and worse. China even occur boycott Japanese goods last year. Many of Chinese people became mob to destroy Japanese enterprise. Most of patriotic personages were held the demonstration in different city in China. They boycotted Japanese goods so that all of Japanese companies were going down in China. Jusco is Japanese company; Jusco is short for Japan United Stores Company. The various of Jusco companies are subsidiaries of AEON CO. Ltd. There was a JUSCO in Shanghai before, but it was dropped down finally because of poor management. In Guangdong, Guangdong JUSCO Co. , Ltd used the name JUSCO to operate the first JUSCO at 1996. Now, there are 13 shops in Guangdong. It took the lead in the introduction of foreign advanced GMS (department store the supermarket) format mode, and in 2010 launched the SM (Food supermarket) formats. Guangdong JUSCO has a sound management system and in 2005 obtained the ISO9001: 2000 quality management system certification; national green market certification in 2007, was one of the first to obtain the certification of retail enterprises; 2010, ISO14001: 2004 environmental management system certification, the retail business is the first to pass the certification. Adhering to the everything for customers business philosophy, Guangdong JUSCO has been thought to provide customers with security, peace of mind and trust of goods, services and a comfortable shopping environment for the mission, so that customers enjoy shopping. Guangdong JUSCO business goods include: fashion clothing, household goods, sporting goods, home decorations, food, Japanese cuisine, fast food and other necessities. 2. 2 Research objectives 1. 2. 1 Definition of communication and leadership Communication is a slippery concept, and while we may casually use the word with some frequency, it is difficult to arrive at a precise definition that is agreeable to most of those who consider themselves communication scholars. Communication is so deeply rooted in human behaviors and the structures of society that it is difficult to think of social or behavioral events that are absent communication. Halavais, 2006). More and more countries open up their market in this modern world. Communication become very important to Jusco, due to relationship between Japan and China is getting worse. Leadership has been described as â€Å"a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a c ommon task. † (Chemers M. 1997). Leadership is easy to understand that organize a group of people to achieve a common goal. Under this global world, every organization is need cross-culture leadership. Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand how individuals of different cultures interact with each other (Abbe, Gulick, amp; Herman, 2007). 1. 2. 2 To investigate the component for communications and leadership. Communications is a big problem in Jusco. This is common problem in China. AEON has been set up 18 Jusco in Guangdong, naturally, managers, leaders and employees all are Chinese. Otherwise, they must do the job under the working mode of AEON management. So communication sometimes is a big problem. Direction of communication is deciding how to communicate to each other. We further subdivide the vertical dimension into downward and upward directions. (R. L. Simpson, 1999) sometimes, most of sales do not will to talk to Jusco’s managers. And I know, Jusco managers also do not want to communicate to Japanese employers. It is even more badly when the DIAOYU DAO event happened. Japan and China are in stalemate. Leadership is mainly cross-culture leadership. 1. 2. 3 Further problem To find out further research opportunities for current problem. With the Japan and China become more and more hostility. We have to find out how does Japanese organization do in China. So we can research other Japanese company to have some more opportunities to compare Jusco. 1. 3 Research rationale I choose this topic because I was worked in Jusco as a red wine salesman last year, and I know this is Cross Culture Company, and its communication and leadership must be changed after the relation between China and Japan get worse. So I decide to use my MO knowledge to how it will be changed. Or keep the old style to manage. 2. Literature review 3. 3 Introduction Communication and leadership have a big role in management forever. Communication is decided whether make the company stay in the harmony situation. This makes the organization more effective and standard. Verbal communication is important to Jusco, but non-verbal communication is also important to it. Jusco is cross-culture organization; Chinese managers need to talk to Japanese senior management. After DIAOYU DAO event, the relation between Japan and China is getting worse, Japanese and Chinese cannot have a nice conversation. So I want to find out the difference of two stages. Leadership is an ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. However, not all the leaders are managers. Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness. So Jusco is the same. Jusco is customer-focused service operation. They have a lot of leaders in Jusco. Different apartment has different leader. However, a good leader can make it more effective. It also make customer more comfortable when customers shopping in Jusco. 3. 4 Main issue—communications Communication represents one of the most important tools that the leaders have at their disposal to perform their influencing of tasks. Its significance is such that some authors consider it as the â€Å"blood† that brings life to the organization. Paulo Nunes, 2011) In Jusco, communication is important thing, no matter employers or employees, they need to communicate to each other. Due to power distance is stay in the high level. Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed un equally. (Gert Jan Hofstede, 1965) Japan is in the high level of Power distance index. So do Jusco, senior managers have some power to manage and ask employees to do the job. However, Jusco is customer-focused service operation. Sometimes, senior managers will ask others to serve customers not himself. They have their own duties. But they need to put customers at the first position. So this is the main problem in Jusco. And the communication is has the big usage for employers to avoid this situation happening. Communication has the general process. The key parts of this model are the sender, encoding, the message, the channel, decoding, the receiver, noise, and feedback. The sender starts a message by encoding a thought. The message is the real thing of the sender’s encoding. When we speak, the speech is message. Our writing is the message. The movements of our acting and the expressions on our face are the message when we gesture. One of the suitablekinds of communications is organizational communication. In organizational communication, there is one kind of mode for Jusco: Formal small-group networks. Formal organizational networks can be very complicated. There are three kinds in this mode, chain, wheel and all channel. The more effective criteria are the networks wheel and all channel. Jusco is wheel mode. For example, one manager is managing drink, wine and so on. 3. Main issue—Leadership Leadership has main two kinds of theories. One is trait theories of leadership, and it is focus on personal qualities and characteristics. By 1990s, after research, studies and analyses, the best leader is unlike the normal people. They are special. But the particular traits that characterized them varied a great deal from review to review. (S. A. Kirkpatrick, 1991) Significant relationships exis t between leadership and such individual traits as: intelligence, adjustment, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and general self-efficacy. While the trait theory of leadership has arisen again, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. (Zaccaro, S. J. 2007). The other is behavioral theories. In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles. (Spillane, James P, 2004) The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. According to three styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. Lewin, Kurt, 1939). Normally, some leaders may compare traits and behaviors to manage; however, they are still failing to manage. As important as traits and behaviors are in identifying effective or ineffective leaders and they do not promises to success. 3. 6 Theories used in Jusco While the communication model used in Jusco, if managers can use this kind of skills, empl oyees can be pleased to accept the order and finish the job in a short time. Formal small-group networks is the normal communications mode exist in Jusco. I ever was a wine sales in Jusco, my group all are sales of wine. The wheel relies on a central figure out to act as the conduct for the entire group’s communication; it simulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader. 2. 5 Conclusion Above the literature review, we can understand the theories of communication and leadership. And figure out which kind of model can be used in Jusco. However, something I can know more in the Jusco senior management. So Ican not ensure the how the solve the problem just by this simplified concepts. 3. Research methodology. 4. 7 overall research design Step 1 Select Jusco as the object of study. | Step 2 Use communication and leadership theories to clarify the usage of management system. | Step 3 Find materials about communication and leadership in Jusco. | Step 4 Organize the materials found before. | Step 5 Combine the viewpoints that have same directions. | Step 6 Add personal views in research paper. | Step 7 Come out the final research paper. | At first, you have to set up your research title. In this modern world, people pay attention to personal benefits from work, so how to make the communications effective and in a proper way can be a key element to achieve success for companies. And leadership is making the company keep the direction keep on the right way. And make the company get more effective and achieve the goals as fast as possible. This is why I choose communication and leadership in Jusco, especially in the specific stage, after the DIAOYU DAO event. After deciding what title is, I begin to search information about communication and leadership which can support my research, and then finding opinions about the communication and leadership system in Jusco. With collection of all the materials that I need in this paper, the step four is to organize them and find out what the authors’ opinions about communication and leadership in Jusco, even in Japanese organization. When clarifying the points from some experts. Communication has some usage for making the whole company staff harmony, and let the managersto know more about employees. Let the whole company become the one big thing, and stay in the high effective. At the end, you read all the references, and link the knowledge and make it to the net. Figuring out why the communication and leadership in Jusco is so important and which kinds of mode are fit for Jusco. 3. 2 Ways to conduct literature search Key words| Source| Finding | Cross-cultural competence in Army leaders| From library books| Abbe, A. , Gulick, L. M. V. , amp; Herman, J. L. | An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates| From library books| Chemers M. (1997)| The process of communication| From library books| D. K. Berlo,| Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. | From library books| Empirical foundation. (Study Report 2008-01). | WIKIBOOKS CONTRIBUTORS. | From library books| Halavais, Joe Petrick, Ashley Anker(2006)| Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind| From library books| Hofstede, Geert, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov. | Great Motivation Secrets of Great Leaders. | UCD library| John Baldoni(2005)| Journal of Social Psychology| From library books| 8. Lewin, Kurt; Lippitt, Ronald; White, Ralph (1939). | Communications| Google research | Paulo Nunes, 2011| Vertical and Horizontal Communication in Formal Organizations| From library books| R. L. Simpson, 1986| Employment Relations| From library books| Rose, 2001. Acadermy of Management Executive| UCD library| S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke,| Towards a theory of leadership practice| From library books| Spillane, James P. ; et al. , Richard; Diamond, John (2004)| Essentials of Organizational Behavior| Text book | Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge(1998)| Trait-based perspectives of leadership| From library books| Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). | 3. 3 Rese arch Approach Q1: Is it communication is important in Jusco between all the staff? A: YES B: NO Q2: In communication, which thing do you think is important? A: trust B: honest C: honor Q3: Which thing will affecttheresult of the communication? A: skills of communication. B: parties of communications. C: place when having communication. Q4: Do Jusco do the research to know more about what the employees want? Write down your opinion. Q5: Do all the staff will have courage to communicate to the managers? Write down your opinion. Q6: If some problem happens between two apartments, how do you communicate under this question? Write down your opinion. Q7: How do you think the level of effective during working in the Jusco? A: high. B: normal. C: low. Q8: How do you identify superior/subordinate relationship? A: very clear, I will report to superior. B: Superior sometimes will interpose my work. C: Often several superiors give the order at the same time. D: When I facing the problem, I do not know who I can ask. Q9: How do your manager to order your work? A: manager will show me the detail. B: manager will discuss with me when I am in trouble. C: manager normally do not discuss with us. D: I often confused when I get the order from my manager. E: other:______________ Q10:Do you often find nobody will be responsible for the job, how do Jusco take charge? Write down your opinion. Question no. 1 to question no. 3 are identify is communication important to the employers or sales in Jusco. I want to know is it some problem in communication in Jusco staff. It helps to clear my thoughts that whether communication is barriers in Jusco between the employees. Due to superior/subordinate relationship is really complicated. At the same time, according to the communication process, I want to find out which process is something wrong. Like question no. 1, it will give all the staff a shake. They maybe will suddenly realize we are lack of communication during the work. Question no. 2 is the same to question 1, just want to notice staff to think about the communication. The usage of question 3 is wanted to ask them whether communication will affect their work. What is the problem will come out if communication in a low level. Give something to them to think. And this serious of problems are more valuable after the DIAOYU DAO event come out. Due to Jusco is in embarrassing situation in China. Question no. 3 and question no. 4 are the same direction. After give 3 questions to wake you up and think about the communication in Jusco. Comparing their real situation in Jusco, and research the information about the communication is it works out. And does it effective or not. These two questions both need to write down your own opinion, your own thoughts. These are staff real thoughts. According to it, maybe the management in human behavior of Jusco can change the structure to make the whole Jusco has more effective. Question no. 5 and question no. 6 are transition question; it is from communication questions to leadership questions. Questions no. 5 and question no. 6 are concern about communication and leadership. It is not only asking staff the situation of communication, but also checks the leadership in Jusco. We can see the superficial current situation of leadership in Jusco. After I get the superficial information about the leadership, we will collect the information about evaluation of the effective. With the question no. 7, we check the standard of their effective. By this collection, we get this information and find out whether leadership in Jusco is good to use. Question no. 8 is mainly to check the sales and employees how to treat with their superior. Hence, it also evaluates harmony of communication between superior and subordinate. If the relation is harmony, it has a lot of effect to affect the leadership exercise power. Question no. 9 has connection with question no. 9; question no. 8 is mainly collecting the information from employers and sales in Jusco. We can see the truth about the real working situation by opinions of employees and sales. According to their view, we have to do some evaluations to check the leadershipeffective or not. Question no. 10 is helps Jusco to improve their situation. Jusco is customers first company, if this situation coming up, all of employers and managers have to serve customers first. This is vision of Jusco. If they all pass the job to others, no one serve customers. Customer will go away with his dissatisfaction and blame Jusco has the bad service. What the worse, he will complain or tell every friend he knows so that the bad image of Jusco has been set up. 3. 4 Sampling For sampling, I need to contact with Jusco. Each observation measures one or more targets, sampling have too methods and everyone should to be used in the proper way. They all are unique. They are demanded to suitable different situation become the characteristics difference. Jusco as the biggest retail corporation in Asia, in Guangdong, it also the Top 3 of retail corporation. So Jusco is a big corporation, I think Simple random sampling is fit for Jusco. In general, I put one Jusco as the whole, Equal to the probability of each individual to be able to get through one by one extraction method to extract a sample of each extract this sampling method is simple random sampling. Why I choose simple random sampling? Due to Jusco have 26 stores in Guangdong province. Their cope is too big, so I have pretended their probability is equal. Hence, I choose the random one store has regular scale to do this research. Even though, each Jusco has different sales, employees and managers. The mode of management in Jusco do not change, each Jusco is the same administrative mode, Advanced GMS comprehensive department store supermarket retail business model. Normally, one GMS mode of Jusco has five hundred to one thousand staff. They divided into different departments. Each department I will find the 20 people to do this research. When they done their research, I gathering all the information, and continue to analysis. When I finished that, I will finish my goals and finish my all objective. 3. Data access and collection To do this research and make the sampling, I have to go to Jusco investigation in Guangdong province. However, you cannot go in the Jusco working area easily. It is lucky I was worked there before, I know the managers. With the top managers in supermarket agreement, I finally go into and do some survey. My main contact person is my friend who sells the red wine inside it. Contact peopl e: Wang Hong 3. 6 Methods of data analysis After I finish my survey, I will use my organization behavior management and cross culture management to analysis Jusco. How to communication and leadership will happen in it. The further I will analysis is what will affect them after the DIAOYU DAO events. 3. 7 Research limitation As a full time student in Singapore, we have little time to do the research. Due to the time is too short, I do not have enough time to make the scope large, and make is simplified. At the same time, I still have another course; my time will become shorter and shorter. Under this reason, maybe my point of view will short for one side. Maybe leadership will gather more information than communications. In China many things are cannot show in the newspaper so the information collection is a big problem, and Chinese people do not say anything so clearly, especially in the relationship, during the research. The superior/subordinate relationship cannot record faithfully. Maybe subordinates are too afraid to answer the truth. And even more, English is not my first English, many words we need to figure out how to express my view of points. 4. Conclusion 5. 8 summary This essay is mainly to show that how communication and leadershipwill affect the work in the organization. Different organization has their ownmanagement mode and their own culture. These are affecting the staff how to act in the company. According to the first part of communication, communication is basis skills in the human behavior. Communication process will show us the flow during two people communicates. Make the communication more effective is lead to the whole working flow more effective. However, there are some barriers to effective communication. Like filtering, selective perception. Emotions, information overload and so on. The next objective is leadership. Due to there is a big problem, about the relations. Due to in China, the employee will very afraid of the boss, so if the employers want to get the feedback is a very difficult thing. So the communication skill is necessary, but without the communication skill, what can the employer get the information from is also consider in this part. And what’s effect will the relationship come up with. Managers must not be a leadership, everyone can do. However, Jusco in China, most of people are Chinese. Leadership means that you are my boss, you are my superior, I need to receive you order to do the job. So leadership in this, there is a lot of value to have this research. The last part is how communication and leadership actually do in Jusco. How managers are good usage of these theories to manage Jusco working. 4. 2 Implications With the company growth up, and more and more employee will join with the company to help a company to give produce, and there will be one day the company become a global company then it will face the east and west different culture, and the relationship is not as simple as before, how can the employer deal with it. They need to use the tool of communication, and even developing their leadership to make he reach their personal goal. China is depending on relations, this is a marvel country. Communication is a good weapon to flight during in this society. Leadership is one person who cans good use at communications and he has the ability to gather some people to achieve the goals. This is difference to order people to do the job. 4. 3 Further research opportunities Actually in China, relation is important thing. This is not only communication nor does leadership make it success. Every foreign company, need to do some research about relations. If you control this, you can live really well in China. Reference 1. Abbe, A. , Gulick, L. M. V. amp; Herman, J. L. (2007). Cross-cultural competence in Army leaders. 2. Chemers M. (1997) An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers 3. D. K. Berlo, The process of communication (NEW YORK: Holt, Rinehart amp; Winston, 1960), pp. 30-32. 4. Empirical foundation. (Study Report 2008-01). Arlington, VA: U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behaviora l and Social Sciences. 5. Halavais, Joe Petrick, Ashley Anker(2006): WIKIBOOKS CONTRIBUTORS. Free software Foundation, Inc. 6. Hofstede, Geert, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2010. 7. John Baldoni(2005): Great Motivation Secrets of Great Leaders. McGraw- Hill. P1-24 8. Lewin, Kurt; Lippitt, Ronald; White, Ralph (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology: 271–301. 9. Paulo Nunes, Communications, 2011,rehttp://www. knoow. net/en/sceconent/management/communication. htmretrieved 2013-1-20. 10. R. L. Simpson, â€Å"Vertical and Horizontal Communication in Formal Organizations,† Administrative Science Quarterly, September 1989, pp. 188-196. 11. Rose,2001. Employment Relations. UK: Pearcon Edmcati Ltd. 2. S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, â€Å"leadership:Do traits matter? † Acadermy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48-60 13. Spillane, James P. ; et al. , Richard; Diamond, John (2004). Towards a theory of leadership practice. Journal of Curriculum Studies 36 (1): 3–34. 14. Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge(1998): Essentials of Orga nizational Behavior. Eleventh edition. Pearson Educated Ltd. 15. Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62, 6-16. Confirmation Certificate Congratulations! You have successfully completed the Library Plagiarism Quiz. Student Name: Chen Zhiying Student Number: .. 11211905. Date: . 2012-10-18.. THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT (signature)†¦chen zhiying†¦.. HAS COMPLETED THE PLAGIARISM QUIZ Remember that the confirmation certificate is a statement by you that you understand plagiarism and know how to avoid it. If you think that you do not understand plagiarism and how to avoid it after working through this tutorial, you should confer with your module coordinator, no matter what score you have obtained on the test.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804) Essay -- Essays Papers

Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804) Author of Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). "The Enlightenment was a desire for human affairs to be guided by rationality than by faith, superstition, or revelation; a belief in the power of human reason to change society and liberate the individual from the restraints of custom or arbitrary authority; all backed up by a world view increasingly validated by science rather than by religion or tradition." (Outram 1995) In the eighteenth century, people started questioning the authority and knowledge of the church. New ideas placing human reason over faith and blind obedience began arising. This period in history is known as the Enlightenment. It is a movement, still in progress, for individual people to reach and hopefully grasp their highest potential. It began with the writings of philosophers such as Voltaire (1694-1778) and Charles-Louis Montesquieu (1689-1755). The second wave included Denis Diderot (1713-78), d'Alembert (1714-80), and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78), and the final stretch came from thinkers such as Lessing and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). All three eras emphasized intellectual reason over faith and put more reliance on scientific discoveries and revelations. However, the people in the third part, especially Immanuel Kant, having the benefit of hindsight, are able to encompass the movement from faith to reason in their writings. The basic details of Kant's biographic life take very little space. He was born in 1724 in Konigsberg, the capital of East Prussia and one of Frederick the Great's garrison towns. Kant knew what it was like to live as a peasant, since he came from a peasant family. His father was a harness maker. From an early age, Kant showed much intellectual potential and his local fame gained him admittance into a school called the Collegium Fredericianum, an institution run by Pietists. "Pietism was an eighteenth century fundamentalist movement within German Protestantism", also followed by his parents, "that minimized the authority of the church and stressed individual moral conduct (Sullivan 1994)." Then, he attended the University of Konigsberg, also staffed mainly by Pietists. The influence of this religious background is reflected in Kant's beliefs in the existence of God, in the dignity of each person, and in a universal moral code. Kant spen... ...e believes that it is still going on. The time of Enlightenment is not over yet we still presently are in it today. He says: "If it is asked now whether we live at present in an Enlightened age, the answer is: No, but we do live in an age of Enlightenment (Velkley 1989)." Immanuel Kant Links: University of Arkansas Link: University of Arkansas Link Kant Homepage Link: Kant Homepage Works Cited - Acton, H.B., Kant's Moral Philosophy, published by: Macmillan and Co., Copyright 1970. - Buchdahl, Gerd, Kant and the Dynamics of Reason, published by: Blackwell Publishers, Copyright 1992. - Deleuze, Gilles, Kant's Critical Philosophy, published by: The University of Minnesota Press, Copyright 1983. - Sullivan, Roger J., An Introduction to Kant's Ethics, published by: Cambridge University Press, Copyright 1994. - Velkley, Richard L., Freedom and the End of Reason, published by: The University of Chicago, Copyright 1989. - Wood, Allen W., Kant's Rational Theology, published by: Cornell University Press, Copyright 1978.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Pop Culture Essay Essay

There are many movie genres out today than there were before in earlier years. Movie genres are basically different types of movies, such as: horror, suspense, mystery, drama ,romance, etc. Today it seems that most peoples favorite movie genre is horrow or action. Action movies have a lot of different stuff in them that is pleasing to the eye. Action movies are typically loud and have a lot of fighting, racing, and adventurous things in the film. Horror movies on the other hand have a lot of scary things in the movies. Their big thing is that the more blood they have the better it is to the audience watching. Even though horror and action may be the top picks of the rest of the country, I have my own genre of movies that I particularly like the best. My favorite genre of movies is romance. In a romance based movie, it is filled with love and a lot of laughter throughout the whole movie. While most romance movies start off bad and end up with a happy ending, some start out good and end good as well. Most romance movies today start out being bad and then it ends up in the happy ending that you suspect from the title of the movie. Romance movies go through every movie genre there is. There is suspense and sometimes a little horror as well. Sometimes, and most of the time, they contain a lot of drama. The best romance movies are the ones full of drama that is fun to watch. Every woman around the world enjoys a good romance movie. Many women around the world love romance movies, including myself. Simply because they meet the cravings that every woman has sometime throughout their lives. Each and every romance movie touches a woman in some way or another. Every girl dreams of having that guy from a love story. They want them to be loving and caring and when we watch these movies we imagine ourselves being the girl in the movie. Some movies, even make a girl feel better after a breakup. However, some of the real love stories can make it worse than ever before. Also, romance movies will make you cry if it is one of those that are filled with sad moments throughout the whole movie. As a girl, sometimes we feel the need to cry, whether it is stress or PMS. The  romance movies are a good way to bring out the inner emotions and in the end, make you feel a whole lot better. Drama is another movie genre that gets included into romance movies. Drama can be funny and it can also bring out deeper thoughts and emotions. Everyone and especially women, have a fair share of their love for drama. Women like to gossip and chick flick, love stories are filled with it. Gossiping is a way to let things out and to give out information that can be bad or good. It just depends on who is saying it or what is said. The good thing is, the drama in the romance stories are usually not true. Even though we all get a good laugh at the stupid ones in the movie. In conclusion, romance genre movies are a favorite. They can make you happy or sad or bring out different emotions. Romance movies are twisted with drama along with romance to bring out laughter or anger in the audience. Everyone will have their own personal reaction to every single romance movie that comes out. Therefore, in my opinion, romance genre movies are the best because they contain many qualities that other genres do. Meaning that they satisfy almost every â€Å"craving† that a person has for a good movie.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Peak Oil and Energy Security Essay

Energy security means having access to the requisite volumes of energy at affordable prices in association with national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption. From the perspective of a government concerned and the management of strategic interests, energy security implies energy policies and standby measures that can be implemented in the event of a supply disruption—and at a cost that its citizens consider reasonable. Such measures include energy supply diversification and a certain volume of energy stock. Definitions of Energy Security: The International Energy Agency (IEA) definitions of energy security have focused on the â€Å"adequate supply of energy at a reasonable cost†, and have referred to energy security to be just â€Å"another way of avoiding market distortions† (IEA, 1995). The underlying belief of these definitions is that â€Å"smoothly functioning international energy markets† will deliver â€Å"a secure – adequate, affordable and reliable – supply of energy† (IEA, 2002). IEA has claimed that energy security always consists of both a physical unavailability component and a price component, although their relative importance depends on the market structure (IEA, 2007). The European Commission’s Green Paper (EC 2000) states that energy security also entails respecting environmental concerns and working towards sustainable development. They clarify that the security of supply does not seek to maximize energy self-sufficiency or to minimize dependence, but aims to reduce the risks linked to such dependence. Energy plays an important role in the national security of any given country as a fuel to power the economic engine. Access to cheap energy has become essential to the functioning of modern economies. The modern world relies on a vast energy supply to fuel everything from transportation to communication, to security and health delivery systems. Some sectors rely on energy more heavily than others; for example, the Department of Defense relies on petroleum for approximately 77% of its energy needs. The growing uncertainties about stability and security that exist in the global energy market have fuelled the need for nations to have a comprehensive energy security strategy. Energy security is also essential for the economic growth and development of  countries as energy in-security can hamper the productive activities in the economy as well as undermine consumer welfare. Rapid urbanization and rising middle-class incomes around the world have led to explosive growth in electricity demand. Thus, to the growing urban communities, energy security simply means keeping the lights on. Chester (2010) lists five fundamental aspects that characterize ‘energy security’. Firstly, energy security is about the management of risk – the risk of uninterrupted, unavailable energy supplies; the risk of insufficient capacity to meet demand; the risk of unaffordable energy prices; the risk of reliance on unsustainable sources of energy. These risks may be caused due to energy market instabilities, technical failures or physical security threats. Secondly, the definition of energy security may be framed to reflect a country’s energy mix, the abundance of local resources and import dependence. Thirdly, the term energy security reflects a concept of strategic intent, implying that energy security is not a policy in itself, but that specific policies have to be adopted by governments to achieve the objectives of energy security. Fourthly, energy security has temporal dimensions – the risks and threats to physical supply differ across short, medium and long-term horizons. Short-term risks include terrorism attacks and technical failures. Long-term risks, on the other hand, concern the adequacy of supply to meet demand and adequacy of infrastructure to deliver supply to markets. Fifthly, the term energy security has to be applied keeping in mind the significant differences between the oil, gas, nuclear and other energy markets and infrastructure. As energy is essential for the economic growth and development of a country, it has come to be recognized as a ‘strategic commodity’. This is because any uncertainty in its supply can threaten the effective functioning of an economy (Sahir and Qureshi, 2007). It therefore becomes an imperative for a country to ensure secure energy supplies at affordable rates. This crudely defines the idea of ‘energy security’. Threats to energy security include 1. The political instability (tensions in Northern Iraq, Southern Sudan, the Niger Delta and the East Mediterranean as examples of how competition for energy resources can cause instability) of several energy producing countries. â€Å"Energy should be a motor for development and cooperation, not a source of conflict,† said Mr. Terje Roed-Larsen. 2. The manipulation of energy supplies, 3. The competition over energy sources, 4. Attacks on supply infrastructure and, 5. Dominant countries reliance to the foreign oil supply. 6. Increased world competition for energy resources due to the increased pace of industrialization. Renewable energy Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits. The deployment of renewable technologies usually increases the diversity of electricity sources and, through local generation, contributes to the flexibility of the system and its resistance to central shocks. For those countries where growing dependence on imported gas is a significant energy security issue, renewable technologies can provide alternative sources of electric power as well as displacing electricity demand through direct heat production. Renewable bio-fuels for transport represent a key source of diversification from petroleum products. Long term measures to increase energy security center on reducing dependence on any one source of imported energy, increasing the number of suppliers, exploiting native fossil fuel or renewable energy resources, and reducing overall demand through energy conservation measures. Facts and Figures: 1. Oil expert Mike Ruppert has claimed that for every calorie of food produced in the industrial world, ten calories of oil and gas energy are invested in the forms of fertilizer, pesticide, packaging, transportation, and running farm equipment. 2. The impact of the 1973 oil crisis and the emergence of the OPEC cartel was a particular milestone that prompted some countries to increase their energy security. 3. Japan, almost totally dependent on imported oil, steadily introduced the use of natural gas, nuclear power, high-speed mass transit systems, and implemented energy  conservation measures. It has become one of the world leaders in the use of renewable energy. 4. India is carrying out a major hunt for domestic oil to decrease its dependency on OPEC, while Iceland is well advanced in its plans to become energy-independent by 2050 through deploying 100% renewable energy. 5. Amount of sun that hits the world in an hour is enough to power the world for one year. With the addition o f solar panels all around the world a little less pressure is taken off the need to produce more oil. 6. Geothermal can potentially lead to other sources of fuel, if heat would be taken from the inner core of the earth to heat up water sources, we could essentially use the steam creating from the heated water to power machines, this option is one of the cleanest and efficient options. 7. Hydro-electric which has been incorporated into many of the dams around the world produces a lot of energy, as the dams control the water that is allowed through seams which power turbines located inside of the dam. 8. Bio-fuels have been researched using many different sources including ethanol and algae, these options are substantially cleaner than the consumption of petroleum. â€Å"Most LCA results for perennial and ligno-cellulosic crops conclude that bio-fuels can supplement anthropogenic energy demands and mitigate Green House Gas emissions to the atmosphere. 9. Juliet Alohan writes on the crucial need for its prioritization in Nigeria. It is estimated that by the year 2022, about two million unemployed Nigerians would be gainfully employed if renewable energy is introduced to complement regular electricity supply. 10. Dr. Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber, UAE special envoy for energy and climate change, and CEO of Masdar, said: â€Å"With energy demand predicted to grow nearly 50% over the next 20 years, competition for resources will increase. Energy is therefore becoming a key piece of the global security puzzle. Any significant move to solve the energy crisis is also a step toward creating peace and stability among the nations of the world.† 11. The Renewable Energy Global Status report showed that by the end of 2011, total renewable power capacity worldwide exceeded 1,360 Giga Watt (GW), up to 8 per cent over what it was in 2010. The report added that renewable energy supply constituted more than 25 per cent of total global power-generating capacity, which is estimated at 5,360GW in 2011. Case Study: Energy Security Context in India Sudarshan and Noronha (2009) lay out five important factors that have contributed to increasing energy demand in India. First, the real income of India has grown at a rate of 6-7% per annum over the past two decades, and the Planning Commission of India has a future targeted growth rate of 8-10% per annum for the next decade. TERI (2006) estimates that India will require 2023 MTOE (Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent) of energy by the year 2031 to feed such economic growth rates. Second, a structural shift has been taking place in India, which has accelerated since the 1991 economic reforms. This shift is from agriculture towards the services sector, which is relatively energy intensive. Next, an annual population increase of about 1.9% p.a. has been observed over the past two decades. Importantly, the urban population in India was 25.5% in 1990 and is expected to rise to 40% by 2030. Given per capita energy demand in rural areas is low, this will further feed into India’s gross energy demand. Fourth, there is a growing transport sector. Fifth, an energy transformation is taking place, with a shift from biomass to electricity in rural India. Further, as of 2005, only 55% of rural Indian households had electricity access. Electricity demand is expected to rise, even as the government has significant plans to meet the demand (Planning Commission, 2008). Increasing import dependence of India on fossil fuel-rich countries has hence forced the government to rethink the way India engages with these countries. Given the factors influencing the demand and consumption of energy in India, the Planning Commission of India defined energy security by modifying the definition of energy security given by The World Energy Assessment (UNDP 1999) to suit the Indian context better. This definition is accepted by the Indian government, and it is as follows: â€Å"We are energy secure when we can supply lifeline energy to all our citizens irrespective of their ability to pay for it as well as meet their effective demand for safe and convenient energy to satisfy their various needs at competitive prices at all times and with a prescribed confidence level considering shocks and disruptions that can be reasonably expectedà ¢â‚¬  (Planning Commission, 2006) This definition includes the key aspects of energy security, including those related to poverty and economic growth. The idea that the provision of energy ought to be â€Å"irrespective of their ability to pay† is a slight departure from the definitions of energy security  accepted by several nations, which tend to be market oriented. By factoring in poverty and the inability of India’s citizens to pay for energy, it only stops short of according energy the status of a ‘right’. The income distribution angle is hence incorporated in the definition. Additionally, this definition accounts for India’s import dependency of energy and the possibility of disruptions in the supply. There is also a veiled reference to what would be considered an appropriate level of risk, although this has not been quantified due to the uncertainties involved. In the context of India’s energy security needs, Verma (2007) lays out a two principles to maintain energy security. He states that firstly, India must diversify the supply of energy, both by location and source. Secondly, he states that the resilience of energy systems must be maintained, which is a reference to â€Å"security margins† that act as buffers against shocks and provide facilities for recovery after disruptions. Resilience can come through spare capacity, strategic reserves, backup supplies of equipment, adequate storage capacity along supply change and the stocking of critical components of electricity generation. Any policy measures taken by the government need to thus needs to incorporate these conceptual frameworks. Understanding these concepts is necessary in order to pursue rational policy making in the energy domain. Of course, policy implementation would ultimately revolve around day-to-day governance issues, and fiscal, administrative and political bottlenecks.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

20 Big Fat Lies College Professors Tell Us

20 Big Fat Lies College Professors Tell Us Grab a tub of popcorn, sit back and relax because you’re about to go through the top 20 big fat lies that college professors tell their students in colleges from sea to shining sea. You’ll be hard pressed to think of any others. This list pretty much covers every base. Enjoy! 1. â€Å"You can’t wait until the night before the exam to study and hope to pass it.† Not true. There are many different little details and variables to consider here. It’s actually quite possible to procrastinate and still get good grades. 2. â€Å"I’ll have the tests/exams/homework graded and back to you by the end of the week.† Yeah right. Some professors are pretty good about this, while others aren’t because they’re so bogged down with classes. They’ve got hundreds of tests to grade and papers to inscribe in their ledger. Don’t count on it. 3. â€Å"What you’re learning in this class will prepare you for the real world.† Absolutely not true. That’s like saying that working out will prepare a gladiator for battle. Knowledge is helpful, but there’s a big difference between the classroom and the world off campus. 4. â€Å"If you fail 101, you should probably choose a different major.† Huh? If you have your heart set on a major but bomb 101 that just means you need to try harder. For example, just because a music student struggles with reading and writing music theory doesn’t mean they’re not gifted musicians. 5. â€Å"I take each one of your papers and read through them thoroughly.† Really? That is almost never true. There simply isn’t enough time. 6. â€Å"I can spot an A-student from a mile off.† Maybe they can and maybe they can’t. They’re likely just trying to come off as superior or trying to intimidate students to try and scare off the rabble. A-students are made, not born. 7. â€Å"I do give extensions and I consider exceptions to conventional rules.† If they need to announce this then there’s probably some strings attached. Extensions typically come with a certain type of price tag. 8. â€Å"This is a fabulous field to focus on, with plentiful employment opportunities.† With only a tiny few exceptions, a college degree in any major doesn’t mean a job at all. Period. You’re heading into the 21st century online globalized workforce. 9. â€Å"I’m not paid enough to be biased.† Everyone is biased, especially a professor. 10. â€Å"I care deeply about your success in this major.† How is it possible for a professor to care about hundreds of incoming and outgoing students year over year? Maybe if you establish a strong relationship with them, otherwise this is a stretch. 11. â€Å"This is by far the very best class I’ve ever taught.† How clichà ©. Unless you’re in a truly legendary class for some reason then what’s the point of that statement? 12. â€Å"Oh yes, I always knew I was going to become a college professor.† Could be true, but in most cases it’s not. Remember the old saying, â€Å"Those that can’t do, teach.† 13. â€Å"This is the first time I’ve had to do this but†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Teachers say this to their classes from 1st grade to graduate year Senior Seminar. 14. â€Å"Your final GPA will make a huge impact on the rest of your life.† Not true. The GPA is just a number and has no direct bearing on what you are or are not capable of accomplishing in life. 15. â€Å"I expect the best out of my students.† No, they probably don’t. The longer they’ve been teachers the less true this statement is likely to be. 16. â€Å"The tests aren’t what’s most important here.† At the end of the day that’s simply not true. Take away the need to pass tests and exams, and what’s left? 17. â€Å"I don’t accept excuses.† Maybe not excuses, but there are always extenuating circumstances that all professors must take into account. 18. â€Å"Oh sure, you can stop by my office anytime you need and my door’s always open.† This is so not true, especially if they teach a common elective course or core required course within a popular major. When they’re door is open there’s probably a line and someone already inside. 19. â€Å"If you show up to each lecture, you’ll pass my class.† This isn’t true. There’s a fair amount to be said with exposure, listening intently and taking notes but just showing up doesn’t guarantee anything. 20. â€Å"Just be honest, don’t write what you know I want to hear.† Don’t ever fall for this one. Aim to strike a balance between stretching your limits and the limits of the class/instructions, and being honest. What other lies have you heard from your professors? Share in comments!

Monday, October 21, 2019

Community Health Team Essay Example

Community Health Team Essay Example Community Health Team Essay Community Health Team Essay Community Health Teams Mobilization RATIONALE Fast track Kalusugan Pangkalahatan and achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MD6s), particularly for the poor Ensure that all families are visited by health workers Increase presence of health social sector in the community Promote health seeking behaviors Provide information on health and social services, Philhealth benefits, and accredited health facilities FUNCTION OF COMMUNITY HEALTH TEAMS (CHTS) Health teams guarantee that every family in the community is periodically visited and attended by a health provider and other community workers Community Health Teams assigned to families Do house to house visits Reach all families with priority for CCT/NHTS families and 12 breakthrough areas with highest concentration of NHTS families PURPOSE OF CHTS 1. 1 . Link families to health and other social service providers 1. 2. Provide critical health and social services when needed 1. 3. Deliver key messages COMPOSITION OF THE CHT 5 TRAINED MEMBERS Midwife/Nurse as leader Plus 4 Members: 1 . Barangay Health Worker, Traditional Birth Attendant 2. Social Welfare Development Office Representative, Parent leaders 3. Barangay Nutrition Scholars 4. Barangay Service Population Officer PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES Mobilization of CHTS start (Oct 15,2011) Training of National Trainers (Sep 22-23) Signing of Joint Memo Circular (Oct 11,2011)) Training of Trainers Regional (Oct 12-14, 2011) ROLES OF AGENCIES Training Philhealth Advocacy Knowledge Officer, DepEd Physician, DSWD Regional CCT coordinator DSWD Municipal Links, DOH Provincial/Municipal Health Teams, DepEd Teacher/Principal Resource Mobilization DSWD,LGU Thru DILG ( venue/F00d Tran-ling) LGU thru DILG (Transport Cost) Others DepEd Teacher to refer CCT absentees to CHTs for follow-up DSWD to generate List of CCT families CHT Members Parent Leaders (DSWD), Municipal Social Welfare Development Officer, NNC, POPCOM, DOH KEY MESSAGES 1 . CHTs are to deliver key messages on health, Philhealth, and Pantawid Pamilya Keep your promise to stay healthy. 3. Have at least 4 pre-natal care visits. 4. Give birth at a health center, lying-in, or hospital. 5. Breastfeed your child right after birth. 6. Complete your childs immunization. 7. Space your children 3-5 years apart. 8. Practice proper hygiene. 9. Live a healthy lifestyle. . Enroll and be a PhilHealth member 11. Use your PhilHealth benefits. 12. Know where to go for health services. 13. Go to a health center if you have been coughing for 2 weeks or more. Key Considerations and Preparations for CHT Implementation at the LGU Creation of Provincial CHT Management Team policy support from PLGU/MLGU/BLGU Advocacy activities to generate LGIJ buy in and awareness on KP and CHT 2. Preparations for the Municipal Level CHT training and deployment, and monitoring implementation Integration of the MDG Plan and Financial Risk Protection Plan in the PIPH/AOP

Sunday, October 20, 2019

SAT Trigonometry SOHCAHTOA and Radians

SAT Trigonometry SOHCAHTOA and Radians SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Trigonometry and radians are new additions to the SAT Math section! Do you love SOHCAHTOA and ${Ï€}$ angle measurements? Do you hate trigonometry and radians and don’t know what SOHCAHTOA or ${Ï€}/{2}$ means? No matter how you feel about SAT trigonometry, there is no need to stress. In this guide, I’ll let you know everything you need to know about trigonometry and radians for the SAT Math test and guide you through some practice problems. Trigonometric Formulas: Sine, Cosine, Tangent Although trigonometry makes up less than 5% of all math questions, you still want to get those questions right, and you won't be able to answer any trigonometry questions correctly without knowing the following formulas: Find the sine of an angle given the measures of the sides of the triangle. $$\sin(x)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}$$ In the figure above, the sine of the labeled angle would be ${a}/{h}$. Find the cosine of an angle given the measures of the sides of the triangle. $$\cos(x)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}$$ In the figure above, the cosine of the labeled angle would be ${b}/{h}$. Find the tangent of an angle given the measures of the sides of the triangle. $$\tan(x)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}$$ In the figure above, the tangent of the labeled angle would be ${a}/{b}$. A helpful memory trick is an acronym: SOHCAHTOA. Sine equals Opposite over Hypotenuse Cosine equals Adjacent over Hypotenuse Tangent equals Opposite over Adjacent You should also know the complementary angle relationship for sine and cosine, which is $\sin(x °)=\cos(90 °Ã¢Ë†â€™x °)$. How to Apply Trigonometry Skills on SAT Math There are two main trigonometry questions types you'll see on the test. I'll teach you how to address each. Question type 1 will ask you to find the sine, cosine, or tangent and using the measures of the sides of the triangle. In order to answer these questions, you will need to use a diagram (that means drawing one if it's not given to you).Let's walk through this example: Triangle ABC is a right triangle where angle B measures 90 °; the hypotenuse is 5 and side AB is 4. What is cosine A? First, set up this triangle using the given information: Then, identify the information you need. In this case, the question asked for the cosine A. We know, based on the previous formulas that $\cos(A)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}$. Identify the pieces you need: the angle, the adjacent side to the angle, and the hypotenuse: We have all the information we need, so we just need to put it into the formula: $\cos(A)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={4}/{5}$. ${4}/{5}$ is the answer. A slightly harder version of this question might ask you for sine A instead of cosine A. If you look back at the diagram, you'll notice we don't know what the measure of the opposite side to angle A is (which is what we need to find sine A). In that case, we need to use the Pythagorean theorem (or our knowledge of 3-4-5 right triangles) to find the measure of the opposite side to angle A (BC). $$BC=√{(5^2)-(4^2)}=√{(25)-(16)}=√{9}=3$$ Know that we know that side BC is 3,we just need to put it into the formula: $$\sin(A)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={3}/{5}$$ Question type 2will ask you to find the sine, cosine, or tangent of an angle using a different given sine, cosine, or tangent of an angle. Similarly to question type one,to answer these questions, you'll need to use a diagram (that means drawing one if it's not given to you). Check outthis example: In a right ABC triangle, where B is the right angle, $\cos(A)={4}/{5}$. What is the sin(C)? You want to attack these problems by drawing a diagram, but first you need to figure out what should go where. Use the cosine formula to figure out how to draw the diagram. $$\cos(A)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={4}/{5}$$ Meaure of adjacent side (AB) = 4 Measure of the hypotenuse (AC) = 5 You may notice it's the same triangle from the previous example. In this case, we want to find cosine C. We know, based on the previous formulas that $\sin(C)={Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle}/{Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse}$. Identify the pieces you need: the angle, the adjacent side to the angle, and the hypotenuse. $$\sin(C)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={4}/{5}$$ ${4}/{5}$ is the answer. A slightly harder version of this question might ask you for tangent C instead of sine C. If you look back at the diagram, you'll notice we don't know what the measure of the adjacent side to angle C is (which is what we need to find tan A). In that case, we need to use the Pythagorean theorem (or our knowledge of 3-4-5 right triangles) to find the measure of the adjacentside to angle C (BC). $$BC=√{(5^2)-(4^2)}=√{(25)-(16)}=√{9}=3$$ Know that we know that side BC is 3,we just need to put it into the formula: $$\tan(C)={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: adjacent\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}={4}/{3}$$ Now that we know how to apply the necessary formulas to tackle trig questions, let’s try to apply them to some real SAT practice problems. SAT Trigonometry Practice Problems Example #1 Answer Explanation: Triangle ABC is a right triangle with its right angle at B. Therefore,AC is the hypotenuse of right triangle ABC, and AB andBC are the legs of right triangle ABC. According to the Pythagorean theorem, $$AB=√(202)−(162)=√(400)−(256)=√144=12$$ Since triangle DEF is similar to triangle ABC, with vertex F corresponding to vertex C, the measure of angle F equals the measure of angle C. Therefore, $\sinâ€Å'F=\sinâ€Å'C$. From the side lengths of triangle ABC, $\sin C={\(Measure\: of\: the\: opposite\: side\: to\: the\: angle)}/{\(Measure\: of\: the\: hypotenuse)}={\AB}/{\AC}={12}/{20}={3}/{5}$. Therefore, $\sinâ€Å'F={3}/{5}$. The final answer is ${3}/{5}$ or .6. Example #2 Answer Explanation: There are two ways to solve this. The quicker way is if you know the complementary angle relationship for sine and cosine, which is $\sin(x °)=\cos(90 °Ã¢Ë†â€™x °)$. Therefore, $\cos(90 °Ã¢Ë†â€™x °)={4}/{5}$ or 0.8. However, you can also solve this problem by constructing a diagram using the given information.It’s a right triangle (which it has to be to use sine/cosine), and the sine of angle x is ${4}/{5}$ if $\sine={\(opposite\: side)}/{\hypotenuse}$ then the opposite side is 4 long, and the hypotenuse is 5 long: Since two of the angles of the triangle are of measure x ° and 90 °, the third angle must have the measure $180 °Ã¢Ë†â€™90 °Ã¢Ë†â€™x °=90 °Ã¢Ë†â€™x °$. From the figure, $\cos(90 °Ã¢Ë†â€™x °)$, which is equal the ${adjacent\: side}/{the\: hypotenuse}$, is also ${4}/{5}$ or 0.8. Example #3 Answer Explanation: Similarly to the other trigonometry problem, there are two ways to solve this problem. The quicker way is to realize that x and y are complementary angles (add up to 90 °). Then, using the complementary angle relationship for sine and cosine, which is $\sin(x °)=\cos(90 °Ã¢Ë†â€™x °)$, you realize that $\cos(y °)=0.6$. However, you can also solve this problem by constructing a diagram using the given information. It’s a right triangle (which it has to be to use sine/cosine), and the sine of angle x is 0.6. Therefore, the ratio of the side opposite the x ° angle to the hypotenuse is .6. The side opposite the x ° angle is the side adjacent to the y ° angle. $\cos(y °)={\(the\: side\: adjacent\: to\: the\: y °\: angle)}/{\(the\: hypotenuse)}={6}/{10}$, is equal to .6. The answer is 0.6. Radians Radians will only account for a small portion (around 5%) of SAT math questions, but you still want to get those questions right! Radians are one of the trickier concepts. What do you need to know about radian measure? Definition of Radian Measure The bare bones definition: Radian is a measure of an angle (just as degree is a measure of angle). The in-depth/conceptual version: Radian is a measure of an angle that is based on the length of the arc that the angle intercepts on the unit circle. That sounds like gibberish I know. Let me break it down. A unit circle is a circle with a radius of 1 unit. See picture: Gustavb/Wikimedia The circumference (or length around) this unit circle is ${2Ï€}$, since ${C=2Ï€r}$, and r=1. If the measure of an angle were 360 °, the radian measure would be ${2Ï€}$ since the length of the arc that the 360 ° angle intercepts on the unit circle would be the whole circumference of the circle (which we already established was ${2Ï€}$).Here are some good basic radian measures to have memorized: Degrees Radians (exact) 30 ° ${Ï€}/{6}$ 45 ° ${Ï€}/{4}$ 60 ° ${Ï€}/{3}$ 90 ° ${Ï€}/{2}$ How to Convert Between Angle Measure in Degrees and Radians To go from degrees to radians, you need to multiply by ${Ï€}$, divide by 180 °.Here is how to convert 90 ° to radians: $${90 °Ãâ‚¬}/{180 °}$$ $$={Ï€}/{2}$$ To go from radians to degrees, you need to multiply by 180 °, divide by ${Ï€}$.Here is how to convert ${Ï€}/{4}$ to degrees: $${({Ï€}/{4})(180 °)}/{Ï€}$$ $$={({180 °Ãâ‚¬}/{4})/{Ï€}$$ $$=45 °$$ How to Evaluate Trigonometric Functions at Benchmark Angle Measures The benchmark angle measures (as defined by the College Board) are 0, ${Ï€}/{6}$, ${Ï€}/{4}$, ${Ï€}/{3}$, ${Ï€}/{2}$ radians which are equal to the angle measures 0 °, 30 °, 45 °, 60 °, and 90 °, respectively. You need to be able to use these with the trigonometric functions described in the above trigonometry section (sine, cosine, and tangent).You will not be asked for values of trigonometric functions that require a calculator. Remember, the complementary angle relationship for sine and cosine, which is $\sin(x °)=\cos(90 °Ã¢Ë†â€™x °)$ will be $\sin(x)=\cos({Ï€}/{2}−x)$ when converted into radians. SAT Radians Practice Problems Example #1 Answer Explanation: The correct answer is 6. By the distance formula, the length of radius OA is $√{((√3)^2)+(1^2)}=√{3+1}=√{4}=2$. Thus, $\sin(∠ AOB)={1}/{2}$. Therefore ∠ AOB is 30 °, which is equal to $30({Ï€}/{180})={Ï€}/{6}$ radians. Hence, the value of a is 6. Example #2 Answer Explanation: A complete rotation around a point is 360 ° or ${2Ï€}$ radians. Since the central angle AOB has measure ${5Ï€}/{4}$radians, it represents$/{2Ï€}={5}/{8}$of a complete rotation around point O. Therefore, the sector formed by central angle AOB has area equal to ${5}/{8}$the area of the entire circle. The answer is ${5}/{8}$ or in decimal form .625. Example #3 Which of the following is equivalent to $\cos({3Ï€}/{10})$? A) $\-cos ({Ï€}/{5})$B) $\sin ({7Ï€}/{10})$C)$\-sin ({Ï€}/{5})$D)$\sin ({Ï€}/{5})$ Answer Explanation: To answer this question correctly, you need to both understand trigonometry and radians. Sine and cosine are related by the equation $\sin(x)=\cos({Ï€}/{2}-x)$. In order to find out what the equivalent to $\cos({3Ï€}/{10})$is, you need to change ${3Ï€}/{10}$ into the form ${Ï€}/{2}-x$. To do that, you need to set up an equation: $${3Ï€}/{10}= {Ï€}/{2}-x$$ Then, solve for x. $${3Ï€}/{10}-{Ï€}/{2}=-x$$ $${3Ï€}/{10}-{5Ï€}/{10}=-x$$ $$-{2Ï€}/{10}=-x$$ $${2Ï€}/{10}=x$$ $${Ï€}/{5}=x$$ Therefore, $\cos({3Ï€}/{10})=\cos({Ï€}/{2}-{Ï€}/{5})=\sin({Ï€}/{5})$. D is the correct answer. Test Yourself on SAT Trigonometry Questions! Practice #1 In triangle DCE, the measure of angle C is90 °, $\DC=5$ and $\CE=12$. What is the value of $\sin(D)$? Practice #2 In a right triangle, $\cos({Ï€}/{2}-x)={6}/{8}$. What is $\sin(x)$? Practice #3 In circle O, central angle AOB has a measure of ${3Ï€}/{4}$ radians. The area of the sector formed by central angle AOB is what fraction of the area of the circle? Answers: #1: ${12}/{13}$, #2: ${6}/{8}$, 3) ${3}/{8}$ What’s Next? Now that you know how to handle trigonometry and radians, make sure you’re prepared for all of the other math topics you'll see on the SAT. All of our math guides will take you through strategies and practice problems for all the topics covered on the math section, from integersto ratios, circles to polygons (and more!). Feeling anxious about test day? Make sure you know exactly what to do and bring to ease your mind and settle your nerves before it's time to take your SAT. Running out of time on the SAT math section? Look no further than our guide to help you beat the clock and maximize your SAT math score. Angling to get a perfect score? Check out our guide to getting a perfect 800, written by a perfect-scorer. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Math strategy guide, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Priority Health Issue Report and Critical Analysis of Health Promotion Essay

Priority Health Issue Report and Critical Analysis of Health Promotion Initiatives - Essay Example Third is through the use of a priority area to be determined by examining the cost to individuals and the community. A higher cost will imply a higher level of prevalence (Diabetes Australia & Australian Diabetes Society, 1988). Potential to change is also a method that may be used. Having evaluated the health status of the country, the government has pinpointed the following health priority issues. First are the groups that are currently experiencing some forms of health inequities. Second are the rapidly increasing levels of preventable chronic diseases such as mental complications, cardiovascular diseases, permanent disability and increased mortality rate. Third are the growing and the ageing population, as Australia’s life expectancy rate continues to increase. The Australian health care system has made great contributions in the improvement and maintenance of good health status for the Australians. The healthcare system works with the government to fund the healthcare of public and private bodies. This is in addition to rehabilitation, treatment and diagnosis systems. The system has also extended its cover to all citizens and people can now participate in private health insurance to extend their healthcare coverage. Australia’s healthcare system has also focused on improve technology to better their services to the people. To improve the health status, the Australian healthcare system in collaboration with the federal government has put in place professional and regulatory associations that look on the credibility and applicability of the laid down healthcare approaches and their benefit to the public (Scoggins, RAND Europe, & Rand Corporation, 2008). To address Australia’s health priorities, various actions will be of great importance. First is the use of the public health approach through what has been defined as

Friday, October 18, 2019

How i plan to study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

How i plan to study - Essay Example [Author not known1, 2005].The first step of my study plan is to diligently attend all the lectures pertaining to my subject and try to seek clarification in case of any doubts regarding the topic discussed . The next step is to identify the important points . I will capture the main ideas in the form of notes. [Landsberger, 2005]. I will utilize mind-mapping technique because it is an effective tool of taking notes. It is a technique of taking notes through key words and images. This method helps in quick jotting down of relevant information and is an effective method to remember and review the contents of the lectures. In mind mapping technique, the sentences and paragraphs will be represented in the form of key words and images. Circle the most important word represented by symbol or phrase. Write the related topic outside the circle close to each other. Gradually, the map expands in the direction the topic navigates. This helps the topic in being more specific or detailed. [Landsberger, 2005] Thirdly, I will link and cross-reference key words and images utilized in the mind maps. [Author not known2, 2005]. This will help me to relate to the key notes, phrases, questions and images mentioned in the notes. Fourthly, I will memorize the contents learnt in the classroo

Operations and Supply Chain Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Operations and Supply Chain Management - Essay Example His model had classified government policies and regulations, corporate policies and firm size as moderating variables. Literature Review: Australian Manufacturing and Service Market Studies carried out to survey the service delivery have shown that the public sector has undergone significant reforms to meet public expectation on its performance. The government had addressed this through microeconomic reforms that were characterized by financial deregulation, improved monetary and fiscal policy, tariff reforms, labor market reform, and trade liberalization amongst others (Shergold, 1996, p. 18 and James, 2003, p. 96). In the later years, however, there was a shift to privatization of service delivery to NGOs and private sector (Tang, 1997, p. 98; Productivity Commission 1999. p. 6; Lyons, 1994, p. 182; James, 2003, p. 105 and Rapper, 2000, p. 23). Surveys carried out in Australia to determine whether government should outsource health services for an improved service delivery found o ut that there is the likelihood of poor performance in terms of quality, cost, and other externalities (Boardman and Hewitt, 2004, p. 921). This had left the house undecided on whether to privatize service delivery in this sector or not. Surprisingly, studies conducted to determine delivery speed and delivery reliability found transportation is very fast and reliable but quite expensive. The study shows that Australian gross value added of the transport and storage sector was $ 34, 496 million in 1999-2000. This was 5.6% of GDP. On comparison to other logistic costs, transportation occupies 29.4% of logistics cost, exceeding even warehousing cost, packing cost, management cost ordering cost and movement cost (Chang, 1998, p. 15 and BTRE, 2001, p. 9). Similarly,... Study has shown that the public sector has undergone significant reforms to meet public expectation on its performance. The government had addressed this through microeconomic reforms that were characterized by financial deregulation, improved monetary and fiscal policy, tariff reforms, labor market reform, and trade liberalization amongst others. In the later years, however, there was a shift to privatization of service delivery to NGOs and private sector. Surveys carried out in Australia to determine whether government should outsource health services for an improved service delivery found out that there is the likelihood of poor performance in terms of quality, cost, and other externalities. This had left the house undecided on whether to privatize service delivery in this sector or not. Surprisingly, studies conducted to determine delivery speed and delivery reliability found transportation is very fast and reliable but quite expensive. The study shows that Australian gross value added of the transport and storage sector was $ 34, 496 million in 1999-2000. This was 5.6% of GDP. On comparison to other logistic costs, transportation occupies 29.4% of logistics cost, exceeding even warehousing cost, packing cost, management cost ordering cost and movement cost. Similarly, studies conducted on new product introduction in the Australian market suggested that the rate of success of new products depends on the following: management style, marketing strategies, staff expertise, senior management support, available resources, organization size and distribution channels.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Science fiction Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Science fiction - Term Paper Example Just like the 1950s and 1960s when dangers from nuclear war and fascination with UFOs (Unidentified Flying Object) led many science fiction movies produced on the theme (such as ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ in 1968), so is the case in the last decade or so with global warming. Scientists, writers, and movie directors have all shown considerable interest in exploring the aftermath of the event of global warming. ‘Day After Tomorrow’ by Roland Emmerich is one such movie, which according to Lichtenfeld, takes us from the ‘Cold War’ to a ‘War on Cold.’ (Wildmoon; Leiserowitz, 23) The paper discusses the different aspects of this science fiction movie with a note of impending warning to the society. The movie shows the devastating consequence of climate change that may appear to many as just a fantasy. In the movie, there are scenes of abrupt breakdown of the Greenland ice sheet, producing a 1000-feet- high tsunami smashing into New York. The movie did generate another wave of discussion over the issue of climate change and turned into one of the most successful box office hit The movie narrates the tale of Jack Hall (climatologist at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)) as he survives the breakdown of a colossal ice shelf flouting off Antarctica and returns to his work with a warning about the chances of a sudden and sharp climate change because of global warming. Few weeks after Dr. Hall has submitted his theory, scientists at North Atlantic thermohaline circulation system find that the system is briskly closing down. Thermohaline Circulation (THC) denotes part of the extensive ocean circulation that is driven by density gradients generated by surface temperature and freshwater fluidity. There are some conjectures that global warming might, by way of a slowdown or shutdown, activate localized freezing in the North Atlantic and lead to cooler

Staff Development Plan Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Staff Development Plan - Personal Statement Example So basically I have to be highly skilled and provide interaction and engagement. Also in order to effectively develop my staff I have to be familiar with the content that is what is being taught in class rooms and the context that is the environment in which this content is delivered and the issues surrounding this content. It is only when I know what areas need development would I be able to suggest and bring about a change. (NSDC, 2008) Although I do encourage my staff to attend seminars, orientations and work shops but in addition I have now planned on introducing job embedded development as it is a professional learning experience that relates to the teachers daily work. Job embedded development is a more effective type of staff development as it connected to what the educator is doing in class on a daily basis so teachers can practically apply what they have learned which in turns help sustain their learning. Some of the main characteristics of job embedded development are teachers working together in groups and holding regular meetings. Research shows that these development activities lead to better problem solving as the problems that exist with in the school are better solved by those who work there and have a one on one interaction with the students. Also teachers working in groups get to analyze the students work more carefully and thus result in an overall increase in student achievement. (Galloway, n.d.) I would also want to help my staff develop through coaching and on job instruction and for that purpose I will appoint staff developers. According to researches staff developers have a huge impact on what students and teachers learn. Staff developers can work with the teachers to increase student achievements, to reach the goals of student improvement programs and to provide on going coaching to teachers who are struggling or teachers who want to enhance certain skills. In my opinion the best thing about staff developers is that they are not in evaluating positions and thus the teachers will be encouraged to be open and honest with them about their problems and weaknesses and in this way a more effective development can take place. (Galloway, n.d.) I would also encourage distributed leadership rather than a top down approach. I would encourage interaction between teachers, students and my self not only with in the school but also with other schools, I would also encourage the parents to participate in order to facilitate better learning and development. I would be open to suggestions brought in by the teachers, the parents and even the students. I would give students and teachers a chance to voice their opinions. I will hold regular meeting with the staff and coaches so as to always be in sync with the progress that is taking place. And I would also arrange regular meetings with the parents and students so that they can also be involved in the development process. (NSDC, 2008) Apart from all the above I would encourage regular assessments to be held in the form of closed book quizzes or tests. Theses quizzes would be made up of fill in the blanks, MCQS and short questions that would require the students to recall what they learned in class. These quizzes would facilitate in students as well as teacher learning. Based on the results of the quiz teachers would have an idea of the concepts that the whole class collectively has a problem with and

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Science fiction Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Science fiction - Term Paper Example Just like the 1950s and 1960s when dangers from nuclear war and fascination with UFOs (Unidentified Flying Object) led many science fiction movies produced on the theme (such as ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ in 1968), so is the case in the last decade or so with global warming. Scientists, writers, and movie directors have all shown considerable interest in exploring the aftermath of the event of global warming. ‘Day After Tomorrow’ by Roland Emmerich is one such movie, which according to Lichtenfeld, takes us from the ‘Cold War’ to a ‘War on Cold.’ (Wildmoon; Leiserowitz, 23) The paper discusses the different aspects of this science fiction movie with a note of impending warning to the society. The movie shows the devastating consequence of climate change that may appear to many as just a fantasy. In the movie, there are scenes of abrupt breakdown of the Greenland ice sheet, producing a 1000-feet- high tsunami smashing into New York. The movie did generate another wave of discussion over the issue of climate change and turned into one of the most successful box office hit The movie narrates the tale of Jack Hall (climatologist at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)) as he survives the breakdown of a colossal ice shelf flouting off Antarctica and returns to his work with a warning about the chances of a sudden and sharp climate change because of global warming. Few weeks after Dr. Hall has submitted his theory, scientists at North Atlantic thermohaline circulation system find that the system is briskly closing down. Thermohaline Circulation (THC) denotes part of the extensive ocean circulation that is driven by density gradients generated by surface temperature and freshwater fluidity. There are some conjectures that global warming might, by way of a slowdown or shutdown, activate localized freezing in the North Atlantic and lead to cooler

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Case study Corporate social responsibility and NGOs ( International Essay

Case study Corporate social responsibility and NGOs ( International Business) - Essay Example Precisely, enterprises have operation chains that cut across different societies, communities, cultures and national frontiers where they encounter unique business environments that pose both challenges and opportunities; most importantly, multinational corporations must be responsive to the myriad social and ethical concerns in their specific environments of operations (Husted & Allen 2006 p.838). Ethics and social values are integral aspects of management since businesses have an obligation to take responsibility for the adverse effects of their actions and operations both on the local environment and on the populations in the global business environment (Bennett 2002, p.394). In view of the ambivalent nature of the global business environment, thanks to the challenges and opportunities of globalization and technological advancements, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility has emerged as one of the crucial areas of management focus today (Lim & Tsutsui 2012, p.69). The heightened global focus on ethical behaviour and societal values implies that multinational corporations have to prove themselves as responsible global actors in their dealings in markets where their operations are hosted across the world. For that reason, multinational corporations the world over are increasingly paying more attention to Corporate Social Responsibility today more than ever before, par ticularly given its crucial significance in determining not only business success, but also enterprise survival in the long term (Branco and Rodrigues 2006, p.111). For all the good reasons conceivable, international businesses as well as organisations of various kinds are starting to explore the significance of pursuing a more proactive and comprehensive approach towards CSR as a solution to the myriad challenges of globalization, which undermine sustainable development (Herrmann 2004, p.205). Given that actions

Monday, October 14, 2019

English Crucible Coursework Essay Example for Free

English Crucible Coursework Essay In the established society of a small, Puritan town in the late 17th century, a lie by a ministers niece sparks utter hysteria throughout the town of Salem. This quite minor fabrication causes a wildfire of deceit to burn throughout the town destroying homes, families and friendships. In the centre of this saga the marriage of John and Elizabeth Proctor has been diminished to a marriage of awkward silences and great mistrust by John Proctor adulterous relationship with Abigail Williams. As the town is in havoc, the Proctors marriage is also tested. The play portrays heir struggle to prevail I a world of treachery. In this essay of The Crucible, I am going to be examining the Proctors marriage in relevance to the theme of witchcraft and study why Miler put the marriage at the centre of the play.  When we first see the Proctors in Act Two, a conventional view of home life at that period time is portrayed the husband has been working hard on the land, while his wife cared for the children and tended to her familys needs, but this scene also shows many things. I t shows the need for gratitude from each over, as if they need to please one another vastly. This is depicted many times when John begins to eat. Early on in the scene as Proctor comments on his wifes food saying It is well seasoned which we are aware is false as previously in entering the house he sampled the food and added more seasoning to it, the way this sentence is implied suggests that he is just trying to keep the peace between them. She is content with his praise and eve thrives on his delight in her and feels if she carries on pleasing him he will not go elsewhere for this gratitude, as to his previous mistress Abigail This is not one-sided as John states to Elizabeth after consulting her if she would like a cow he says, I mean to please you with her reply being, John I know. This shows he is attempting to redeem his infidelity and prove to her al he wants is to make her happy and she is aware of his numerous efforts but cannot allow herself to forget the past months.  Elizabeth is still very apprehensive of John and questions him as soon as she is aware of his presence she begins to enquire into his delay home asking him, what keeps you so late?. Elizabeth shows great suspicion towards John; this is depicted through her eagerness to know what is keeping her husband. He justifies himself by declaring in his defence he was out farming. The premature view of the scene in Act Two reveals great suspicion in this marriage, as Elizabeth is fearful that he has been visiting Elizabeth. This parallels to the witchcraft trials of Salem and the scepticism of the inhabitants as to if someone may blindly accuse them next for minor things such as an argument in the past or over land restrictions. The weariness by the community is shown later in the Act when Reverend Hale is told of the arrest of Martha Corey and Rebecca Nurse to this he declares, Then nothing left to stop the whole green world from burning. This statement refers to the suspicion in the town as when one lie has started it is difficult to stop it from causing more lies to arise, this declaration can also be interpreted as the whole green world being the forest and when a forest fire is started it is almost impossible to stop the fire in comparison to the wildfire of lies spreading through the region. This leads to the lack of trust in the district of Salem and in the Proctors marriage .As we return to the early stages of Act Two we see the Proctors involved in a minor dispute as he tells Elizabeth of his moment alone with Abigail, this is where the mistrust in their marriage is exposed and laid bare Elizabeth in disbelief of what she was just confronted with, questions him and asks you were alone with her, and he discards her and tells her, only for a moment, she reads into this as a lie and suspects their liaison has been reunited and is upset he has not informed her of this moment.  Elizabeth still detects that John is concealing something from her and because of her suspicions continuously questions him as we saw at the beginning of Act Two, her frustrations at him is shown when she says, John you are not open with me which explains her distrust in John this is because she feels he is disguising a  Fabrication from her.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Causes And Effects Of Market Failure Economics Essay

Causes And Effects Of Market Failure Economics Essay In relation of the market performance, many things are well done, but not everything is done well. First of all, we assumed that markets are competitive. In some markets, a buyer or sellers might be having a right to control market prices. This ability to influence prices is called market power. Market power can cause markets to be inefficient because it keeps the price and quantity away from the stability of supply and demand. Market failure happen when resources are inefficiently allocated due to imperfections in the market structure , in the world the decisions of buyers and sellers sometimes affect people who are not participants in the markets at all. Pollution is the classic example of a market outcome that affects peoples not in the market such side effects called externalities. Market power and externalities are examples of a general phenomenon called market failure. When market fail public policy can potentially remedy the problem and increase economic efficiency. In this ca se; governments will interference where some form of market failure is taking part. Allocate efficiency means good resource allocation, when we cannot make any consumer better off without making some other consumer worse off. Moreover, an allocation of resources that maximizes the sum of consumer and producer surplus is said to be efficient. The balance of supply and demand maximizes the sum of consumer and producer surplus. That is, the invisible hand of the marketplace leads buyers and sellers to allocate resources. Markets do not allocate resources efficiently in the presence of market failures such as market power or externalities. Policymakers are often concerned with the efficiency as well as the equity of economic outcomes. This approach looks at the given resources and tries to get the most output from them and it also means that firms sell at a fair price to consumers that reflect the real resource use. Market failure is a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficientlywhen freely-functioning markets, operating without government intervention . Therefore, economic effiency welfare may not be maximized. This will leads to a loss of economic efficiency. When market fail, government policy intervention can potentially remedy the problem and increase economic efficiency, may also lead to an inefficient allocation of resources. Causes of Market Failure Public Goods Public goods are properties or facilities that can be used up by many consumers instantaneously without reducing the worth of consumption to any consumers. Therefore, public good is non-rival and non-excludable. That is a consumer cannot be stopped from consuming the good whether or not the individual pays for it. Realistically, non-rival means that the individual demand curves are summed perpendicularly to get the aggregate demand curve for the public good if each of those consumers has a demand curve for a public good (shown as the Figure 7.1). Consider Good with Identical Aggregate Demand is a public good. (i.e., Moon Lakes Water Quality) Figure 7.1 Mounting Aggregate Demand for Public Good Aggregate demand is summed vertically of individual demand curves in the market for a public good. The summed vertically of individual demand curves because all individuals can enjoy a similar public good. Hence, for every marginal unit of Moon Lakes water quality: aggregate demand = the total of consumer value for the unit Non-Rival and Market Failure Figure 7.3 Public Good: showed that the market price is not always in an efficiency condition because the a public good is never used up. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ P=MC cannot be the equilibrium price of water quality because the individuals would not spend for any improvement in water quality. Individual would only spend for Q2, and because of Q2 level of water quality would not be met. Thus, the social optimum solution would be to offer Q* and charge each individual a unit price same to the individuals marginal value at Q* or P1* and P2*. The higher demand of consumer will spend a larger amount than the consumer with a lower willingness to spend for the goods or services (refers to the shaded areas). The reasons of inefficiency occurs in supplying public goods is that, unlike price, quantity is not an effective market mechanism: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ For a given quantity, individuals will not automatically self-select their optimal price, but will instead wish to pay the lowest price possible when they cannot be excluded from consuming the good. Non-Excludability and Market Failure The primary cause of market failure involving public goods is non-excludable. Non-excludability means that the producer of a public good cannot prevent individuals from consuming it. Non-excludability is a relative, not an absolute, characteristic of most public goods. A good is usually termed non-excludable if the costs of excluding individuals from consuming the good are very high. Private markets always under produce non-excludable public goods because individuals have the incentive to free ride, or to not pay for the advantages they get from consuming the public good. With a free-rider problem, private firms cannot earn sufficient revenues from selling the public good to induce them to produce the socially optimal level of the public good. Figure 7.4 Optimal Provision of a Non-excludable Public Good, The Free-Rider Problem, and Market Failure PubD1 = Demand of one individual for public good X. D2 = Total Demand of two individuals for public good X. D3 = Total Demand of three individuals for public good X. D4 = Total Demand of four individuals for public good X. MC = Marginal cost of providing the public good X. The socially optimal level of public good X with four consumers is X4. (Note that the optimal level of the public good with a very large number of individuals is X max.) Because of non-excludability, markets may fail to provide X4.Under private markets, each individual may wait for the others to purchase the public good so that he/she can free-ride. In this case, the private market may provide no public good, because no one is willing to purchase it. For example, if individual decides to purchase (and the others free-ride), the private market will provide a level of the public good equal to X1, where the marginal benefit of the purchasing individual equals to the marginal cost of producing the public good. Notice that this is much less than the optimal level of provision of the public good, X4. Cause of market failure Market Failure is when a good is either over or under produced in a free market due to its externalities or other properties. This means that its ability to be used by more than one person at the same time, without any extra costs, makes it an unsuitable good to be produced by commercial suppliers. When demand is lowered, less will be produced, making the market fail. For an example, when a government subsidies for everyone to have enough of certain good or service, this is a market failure because demand still exists but supply is no longer limited for everyone who gets that product. Externalities are usually in all field of economic activity. Externalities are defined as third party or spill-over, the effects of production and consumption activities not directly reflected in the market. Negative externalities causes market failure because the graphs have failed to measure true products within the society. Failed to allocate resources efficiently and has overproduced goods with negative spillover effects. Negative externalities For example, the consumption of gasoline produces a negative externality in that people who do not use it (own a car) share the costs of the air pollution for which it is responsible. Negative externalities are also property rights problems. Social cost is equal to private cost to the firm of producing the gasoline plus the external cost to those bystanders affected by the pollution. Therefore, social cost exceeds the private cost paid by producers. . Price Social Cost Supply (private cost) Demand (private value) Q optimum Qmarket Quantity Figure 1 Figure 1 shows, the supply curve does not reflect the true cost of producing gasoline, the market will produce more gasoline than is optimal. Solving the negative externalities problem Top of Form Bottom of Form Government develop a product price via using taxes onto the consumption of that particular good. Due to the increase of taxation, consumption will decrease because fewer people will be willing to buy at a higher price, since the tax on the product may be more expensive than before. Furthermore, when the tax is increasing, this will cause the businesses to compete with each other on their prices. On the other hand, there might be some underground business causes products are expensive. The government can particularly tax certain private parties to reduce the amount of marginal private cost in order for it to equal to the marginal social cost for a negative production externality. By taxing a party, they will have a higher cost when producing their goods. Taxation can also provide a source of payment for public goods. e.g. we wouldnt have roads without taxes to pay for them. When a good has a positive externality, the government will often create a subsidy to reduce the effects of a ma rket failure. This means that the government will give money to the party that produces this positive externality, in order to encourage production. When subsidies are given, the producers have more money to produce their goods. This will increase production, bringing the marginal private benefits closer to marginal social benefits, decreasing the positive externality, and thus stopping market failure. One of the reasons contributing to a market failure is the unequal separation of market power. Market power means how strong is the firms influence on the market outcome, for example, the price of a good. Among all possible market condition, the one with most unequal market power would the monopoly market. A monopoly market means that the market has only one producer producing the goods, there is no other source of same or similar goods in the market. In this case, the particular producer would have absolute power to manipulate the price of the good in the market because consumers have no other choice but to buy the goods from that monopoly firm. The worst situation occurs when the goods sold in this particular market is basic necessary goods for the public, this is because the Price Elasticity of Demand (PED) for the good is so low, that the market would not be able to respond to the drastic change of price, if there is any. Price Quantity Q 0 S1 S2 DD S1 shift to S2 6 8 9 5 Figure 1 Figure 1 show that, the effects on the market outcomes when the demand curve is inelastic and supply curve is shifting to the left (from S1 to S2). The total expense increases from $40 to $45 after the firm raises the price from $5 to $9, even though the quantity traded decreases from 8 units to 6 units. If the market were a competitive market, such situation will not happen because as soon as the producer increases the price of good, consumers would switch their consumption onto similar goods produced by other producers in the market. When there is a market failure, government is then needed to interfere and hence improve the market outcome. A good way to prevent monopolization of an industry is via taking legal actions, for example, in South Korea, a Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act is introduced on 31/12/1980. The act was introduced to promote competition among firms and to protect the consumers in the country, hence providing the country a stable and balanced development o economics. Under this act, any company that attempts to combine with another company, regardless the process is done through merging, acquisition of stocks, business take-over, or any other method would be considered as breaking the law and legal actions would be taken by the government. This particular government policy would have a great effect on stopping markets to develop into oligopoly market or a monopoly market, however, in some cases the government actually gave a company the power to monopolize the business. In Malaysia, an el ectricity supplying company called Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) was appointed by the government to be the only official electricity supplier in the country, this was due to the high entry bounty and maintenance fees to run an electricity supplying company, companies other than TNB were unable to bear the high cost and hence the government appointed TNB as the only electricity supplier in the country and subsidy was provided to the company to reduce the cost. Of course in this case another law called price ceiling was applied to control the price of electricity bills in the country, and to prevent exploitation of the company on the residents in the country. Government Policies Price Control Price control is government interference in markets in which lawful restrictions are located on the prices charged. The two primary forms of price control are price floor and price ceiling. Price ceiling is a legal maximum on the price at which a good be sold. Price floor is a legal minimum on the price at which a good can be sold. Price controls enforced on an otherwise proficient and competitive market create imbalances (shortage or surplus) which leadineffectiveness. However, enforcing price controls on a market that fails to reachproficient (due to public goods, externalities, or incomplete information) can actual riseefficiency. Price controls have widely used to decrease inflation in economy. -Price Ceiling Figure 8.1 Pricing and quantity effects of a binding price ceiling on Rental From the figure 8.1, an equilibrium, Eo is occurs when supply curve intersects with demand curve in the free market. The initial price on rental is Po and quantity is Qo when the equilibrium is occurs. Rental control is a price ceiling on rent. According to rental control in New York, when the government enforced maximum price is lower than markets equilibrium price, as shown by the binding price ceiling in figure 8.1. Graphically, the price of rental decrease from Po to P1. Sellers can no longer charge the price the market demands but are forced to meet the ceiling price set by the government. A ceiling price can make sellers away from the market (decreases the supplied resources), while the lower price increases the consumers demand. Hence, the quantity of supply reduces from Qo to Q1 while the quantity of demand increases from Qo to Q2. When DD>SS, the ceiling is a binding constraint on the price and causes a shortages. A number of consumers willing to experience a long line for the product when they need to purchase. Sometimes governments merge price ceilings with government rationing programs to ensure the market will allocate the supply of goods efficiently. -Price Floors Figure 8.2 Pricing and quantity effects of a price floor on Wage Minimum Wage is approaching record lows in the United States. If no one earns any money except for one person, who earns all of the money, then the income distribution would be perfectly unequal. Governments make an effort to stop the poor from getting poorer, and the rich from getting richer in order to achieve an equilibrium in income distribution. Minimum wage laws have its greatest impact on the market for unskilled workers. Minimum Wage is one of the price floors in market. Minimum wage laws establish the lowest price of wages that all employers must pay for labor. The quantity of supplied labor is higher than the quantity demanded in the traditional minimum wage model. According to the figure 8.2, Minimum wage, P2 is above equilibrium price, Po and quantity, Qo when supply curve intersect with demand curve. Labor supplied and labor demanded can be prevented from shifting toward equilibrium price and quantity. Hence, surplus is occurs between quantity of demand, Q1 and quantity of supply, Q2. Minimum wage levels become the price floor and wages cannot fall below the floor price. Conclusion