Saturday, August 31, 2019
I have read the story under the title Ã¢â¬Å"Bank HolidayÃ¢â¬ by Katherine Mansfield. Speaking about the author, I should say that Katherine Mansfield was born In New Zealand In 1888. Katherine Is a New Zealand writer and she Is known by her short stories which deal with human nature and psychology. This Is a philosophical story for a discerning reader who has to read between the lines.Giving the reader a chance to see somebody else s inner life, presented directly and indirectly, the author at the same time does not provide any answers to the questions that one asks himself. The author seems to grant the reader a chance to take leave to doubt and disagree with what he concludes and infers. Being imposing, she's at the same time pretty unobtrusive which definitely, makes a merit of the story. The story under consideration is narration interlaced with descriptive passages.This story is ironical when the author shows regret, displeasure and annoyance of the situation. The author sh ows us Inconsistence way of life different representatives of social classes. In this story details play the main role, the Ironical description of their clothes, the old Oman the author reserved detachment and metaphor, he compares old women with old dusty pin-cushions. Through the choice of the words, the author uses for main characters' description, we can easily understand the author's attitude to them.The author criticizes them. The plot of the short story relies on the internal conflict between the crowd and society. The action of the story occurred in the street during celebrating the holiday. The story under analysis is a third-person narrative. The story is about a festival, which involves a big crowd of People from all different social lasses, to spend a Good time together and enjoy themselves. The main problem that story touches upon Is about people's unwillingness to improve their life, to achieve something better.The character of the story Is a middle-class crowd, miser able people described with bitterness who haven achieve anything but remained the past old times. There Is no action and the events are trivial but we understand the unhappiness of the existence of the crowd. On the one hand their life is dynamic but it's concentrated on trivial events, nothing important, all these people remained in the past. This life is concentrating on some talking, that it's nothing important. The author is disguised.The crowd is presented by different people, but all of them are similar in their world view, besides poor clothes they are illiterate. The way people spill the lemonade they spill their lives. The author addresses to the reader Ã¢â¬Å"Look out! Don't spill your own livesÃ¢â¬ . She described people without any future. The story falls into three logically connected parts. The first part of the story is taken up the introduction of the crowd, on the one hand they are different people, but all of them haven't any future.The story presents some pictur es and the flirts of them Is crowd, people who are quite and who understanding the music . Then It presents children. They might have had something better but they haven't an opportunity to develop In such society. There a lot of detachments, so the author underlines all the details not to miss anything. Alliteration in the sentence: and is dissolved, and the crowd scatters, mobbing slowly up the hillÃ¢â¬ produces affect on the reader. The author uses a lot of verbs: Ã¢â¬Å"dodging, nudging, talkingÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ To show the aggressiveness of the situation.The subject of the depiction in the second part is a fair, during which people sell ugly things and it metaphorically shows. This fact proves the ugliness of the crowd's existence The story reaches the climax by gradation. The crowd rise top on the hill and it seems that something must change but everything remains the same and they continue to live a useless life. The idea of the text can be state as follows: the author is tr ying to convince the reader that people must not waste their life. Every person has a chance for a better life, but he does it better by himself.
Besides that, the usage of mobile phones is also affecting the student health. Mobile phone is not just spoils student morally and psychologically but it also brings some physical problem like sense of hearing and brain problems. In addition, the Doctors said that the number of youngsters with Repetitive Stress Injury is increasing. A Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI) is a damage of part of the body had overusing or exerting too much of stress. According to the studies, texting message regularly, over a period of time, may cause repetition strain. If mobile phone is allowed to bring to school, the longer time of students will get attached with their mobile phone; this causes the percentage of students getting RSI is getting higher. Human heads absorb most of the radiation emits from the mobile phone. The longer time student attached with the cell phone, the more radiation student will get. Radiation is not good for our health as it might cause us vomiting, nausea, losses of white blood and headache even cancer. For a healthy lifestyle, student should get away from the mobile phone. In a nutshell, although there are some advantages of bringing mobile phone to school, there are also many disadvantages that students bring mobiles phone to school. In my opinion, students should not be allowed to bring mobile phones or have mobile phone at school Mobile phones bring some physical problem to the students if the students always use the mobile phones in the school. Besides that, the government should not approve any schools of allowing students bring mobile phones to school. The parents of the student also must not allow their children to bring mobile phones to school. These will solve the problems that students bring mobile phones to school. Without the mobile phones, the results of the students would be going up because the students can concentrate and study harder in class. The disadvantages of bringing mobile phone to school are out way the advantages. Thus, students should not be allowed to bring mobile phones to school.
Friday, August 30, 2019
There has always been a difference opinion on whether leaders are made or born. At numerous times people have been heard to exclaim about someone that he or she is a person that is born to lead. People have tendency to believe that good and effective leaders are people who are naturally bestowed with excellent communication skills, persuasive ability, and born with knack to integrate them in any team structure. Further, there are also firm opinions that it is not possible for every one to naturally acquire the skills of seamlessly inspiring a group of people, set sufficient challenges, and make every one of the group to accept those challenges and strive together to achieve them.However, years of academic research among leaders from social, business and corporate world and political domain have brought out results that stand contrary to popular perception of leaders and their Ã¢â¬Ëinnate qualities and abilitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ of leading people and show that effective leadership is an art that can be very much learned and practiced to perfection by anyone who devotes sufficient time and attention to it.Ã This paper takes the point of view that leadership is a quality that can be learned by anyone with ordinary levels of intelligence and smartness and looks into the range of skills, requirements and capabilities needed by a person to develop leadership qualities.Leadership: DefinitionLeadership is the attribute of inspiring people to channel their efforts towards achieving common goals and objectives (Rosenbach and Taylor, 1998, 1). Leadership is the recognition that attainment of the group objectives and goals can be accomplished through empowering individuals and encouraging them to overcome their rank and position in order to associate themselves and their colleagues with specific works, duties and responsibilities by setting directions, building commitment and taking challenges (Day and Halpin, 2004, 3). An important attribute of a leader is his ability to comm and implicit faith, confidence, and respect of his followers, irrespective of his position and power in the organization.. A leader motivates the employees by setting personal examples, and takes decisions that are quite unconventional, innovative and on the spot to resolve a deadlock. However, the most important quality of a leader is that he/she encourages leadership qualities their followers and help to create a multi-tier leader structure within the organization/group.Organizational leadership: Roles and necessitiesAs the corporate world becomes increasingly competitive and diversified, organizational focus has shifted on developing leadership talents among the employees to maintain their competitive edge.Ã Transnational companies, with their multi-level reporting structure, multiple communication networks, numerous levels of responsibilities and faced with significant differences in time, language and organizational culture are faced with the responsibility of leadership dev elopment among their employees to meet customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands within the limited time and resources (Collins, 2001).Ã Organizations are managed by several forms of leadership based on the exertion of authority within the organization. Two main, but interconnected types of leadership in organizations are the transformational leadership and the transactional leadership, both having strong philosophical and ethical foundations. Transformational leadership gives followers the opportunity to assess the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s view, to seek explanations and provide solutions, while transactional leadership is more based on imposition, where followers are driven by the praise, promise or reward of the leader. In the transactional leadership, the followers are confronted by reproof, threats and disciplinary actions.Transformational leadership has become more popular in the last three decades primarily due to the changing global economy. Transformational leadership promotes equality, justice an d human rights through loyalty and fairness. Recent findings suggest that team performance and communication are improved under transformational leadership. Authentic transformational leaders are sometimes transactional too. The leader may present his opinion, plans and exhort agreement on them, which however may be in the mutual interest of all involved. I consider myself as a typical transformational leader open to criticism and discussion, unafraid of my decisions being questioned. After all only collective thinking and cooperation can bring results.Today the business world realizes that leadership is neither hierarchal nor stratified nor leadership is management. Instead leadership is about inspiring people to pool themselves together towards achieving common goals and objectives (Rosenbach and Taylor, 1998, 1. Leadership is about building commitment and taking challenges by timely distribution of specific works, duties and responsibilities and through setting directions (Day an d Halpin, 2004, 3). Its not surprising then that companies are ready to invest hugely in leadership development program, as a guaranteed way to emerge ahead than their competitors.Developing Leadership QualitiesThere are abundant examples from almost every quarter of business and public domains to show that with well helpÃ designed training programs and experience even otherwise ordinary individuals can emerge as successful leaders in their own spheres. Leadership development process works on two levels. It is suggested coaching and mentoring involves practical and goal focused methods of individual and group learning and behavioral change. For obtaining most effective results and developing specific leadership skills coaching allows individuals to collaborate in methodologically assessing, understanding and solving the issue before them. It leads them to challenge the existing solution models and explore further possibilities through joint effort and accountability. Mentoring is an essential part of educational program, involves commitment and long term relationship between a senior employee and a junior employee where the latter helps in professional and personal development of the former.The second level of leadership development is action learning that requires participants to tackleÃ real life and real time organizational problems (ibid). Through a careful selection of objectives and problems, participants are trained on delivering organizational results, communication learning and management and develop general leadership qualities. It benefits participants greatly as it provides them crucial exposure and considerable experience within a short time. Along with these, modern organizations have also adopted the technique of job rotation, so that individuals have widest possible exposure and experience of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s functional and organizational processes.It is vital to remember that the focus should not be on teaching leadership, instead gettin g participants to learn leadership. Every person has a potential to emerge in a leader by gainingÃ knowledge, purpose and experience and apply themselves moreÃ effectively in their personal and professional domains Leadership is not a characteristic that can unfold in isolation. By its definition, it implies establishing coordination, cooperation, collaboration and orientation among the followers to achieve the designated objectives and goals. However, it is only possible when leaders can inspire their followers with respect, admiration, discipline, sense of emulation and confidence in the abilities of the leader while being helped to envision themselves as empowered individuals (Brown and Lord, 2004, 2).Ã Most relevant qualities of a leaderWithin every social, institutional or organizational structure, a leader is always looked upon the person with abilities to broach reconciliation and resolution in situation of conflict. A good leader exercises his control over most compl ex, demanding and otherwise impossible condition by exhibiting personal integrity, ethical and moral traits and values that other can relate to and get inspired to include them in their personal conduct (Laurie, 2000, 53). Another very crucial characteristics of leadership is that it produces new leaders from among the followers and hence, through a multiplier effect, results in empowerment of individuals and communities.Leadership helps the followers to discover and grow their internal abilities and encourage them to become an integral part of the process, not a mere tool. This causes a reinstating of self pride and confidence among followers and it earns leaders willing obedience of people who realize the integrity of the leader in creating a just, legitimate and encouraging environment where they see themselves as valued members and in turn lend their unconditional support to the joint cause under the leadership (Messick, 2005, 81)Arguably, there are no definite copybook rules to construct a leader. The difficulties, complexities, and challenges associated with a situation give impetus to leadership qualities in otherwise ordinary people who believe in themselves that they are capable of rising up to the difficulties as well as helping others out of it. Therefore although it might be difficult to Ã¢â¬ËteachÃ¢â¬â¢ a person quality of good leader, yet one can expect to inculcate leadership qualities by observing styles and principles of successful leaders. It is said that a leader is a dealer in hope. Leadership is then about inspiration, motivation, encouragement and direction that pulls people to accomplishments that they would not had managed if left alone. However, effective leadership is a very challenging domain as it requires some impeccable personal and organizational traits that can be developed and realized through considerable experience, knowledge and self- discipline.Ã Quite often the leadership is situational and the leader is required to act purely through intuition and circumstantial requirements. However there are certain essential skills and characteristics that are rather mandatory for effective leadership are1 Trustworthiness: Trustworthiness is about integrity in action. Effective leadership is about achieving coordination in words and actions and following the age old principles of truth, honesty and personal integrity.2. Fairness: Leaders canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to be biased or prejudiced or it would jeopardize the confidence of the followers in their secular character.3. Communication and listening skill. Leadership requires excellent communication and listening skill through which the leaders can articulate their views unambiguously and also hear the views of others to give them sense of participation and involvement.4. Initiative: Leadership is about taking initiative and orienting other people towards it. Taking initiative pulls the organization rapidly ahead.5. Good judgment: Leaders must have the ability t o process all information in the backdrop of their knowledge to make correct decisions6. Motivational capacity: Leadership is ineffective if it cant motivate people to the dream and vision of the leader. It is the most desirous quality of a leader and one that is hallmark of leadership.Motivation has a large role to play in developing leadership. According to Isaac, Pitt and Zerbe (2001) individuals aspiring for leadership are greatly assisted a motivational model, called as expectancy theory, that suggests that self interest prompts individuals to charter a course where they tend to maximize the chances of success and growth. Thus self interest acts as a motivation that spurs people to take upon leadership roles and aspire to meet needs of followers along with requirements of the organization (ibid). Also, when leaders meet with followers, it generally results in entire work atmosphere getting highly motivated and people are spirited with aspiration to transcend their present roles and step in the role of leaders (ibid).Leadership is influenced by both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. In the former, motivational behavior is seen as product of external rewards and remunerations while the latter treat motivational behavior as result of internal drives such as enjoyment of work and inner sense of competence (Isaac, Pitt and Zerbe). In either case, individuals are motivated to assume leadership to maximize their self-interest.Leadership: Personal AttributesA good leader should be honest, loyal and committed to the goals of the organization he intends to lead. A good leader should not have a desire for wrongful gains or hidden agendas. This is why perhaps people emphasize on transparency in all dealings of any organization. Some leaders have a self plan and pursue them rather than acting in the interests of the organization. Committed to the cause of the organization or group and being live to the sacrifices and pains of your colleagues is a basic qu ality of a good leader. National leaders and particularly the freedom fighters of several nations had steadfast qualities and determination in them, which helped them carry on and ultimately succeed. A good leader is perhaps a good follower.There is never a stage in which one can have mastered everything and this applies even to leadership. Each day brings learning and experience of various types. A good leader is one who applies these learning and experience by identifying the most appropriate situation of their application.Ã perhaps the rights and wrongs of your own acts too. . A leader is accountable for his actions and should voluntarily open up to any questions or suspicions in his dealings. Similarly a good leader should also emphasize such qualities among his followers and make them accountable too. Simplicity is a mark of identity for any leader and projecting himself as a role model. A leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, actions and words should be a reflection of him, inspiring a ll who follow. A leader indeed should have uncommon qualities to successfully lead his organization.ConclusionLeadership is a quality that comes through effective utilization of experience, education, self-evaluation eagerness to learn and grow. None of these qualities require a transcendental genius or divine abilities to master. They are human attributes that are present among every one of us and given time, training and motivation to master them. The truth about leadership is that any person who has wholly ingrained the necessary leadership qualities as an integral part of their character would appear as one who is born with them.referenceCollins DB, 2001, Ã¢â¬ËOrganizational Performance: The Future Focus of Leadership Development ProgramsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Leadership Studies. Volume: 7. Issue: 4.Day DV and Halpin SM, 2004, Leader Development for Transforming Organizations: Growing Leaders for Tomorrow, Ã (edit) David V. Day, Stanley M. Halpin, Stephen J. Zaccaro, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,Ã Mahwah, NJ.Rosenbach WE and Taylor RL, 1998, Contemporary Issues in Leadership, (edit) William E. Rosenbach, Robert L. Taylor, Westview Press,Boulder, CO.Brown DJ, Lord, RG,Ã 2004, Leadership Processes and Follower Self-Identity, Ã Lawrence Erlbaum Mahwah, NJChampy J, Nohria N, 1999, The Arc of Ambition: Defining the Leadership Journey, Perseus Books (Current Publisher: Perseus PublishingCambridge, MA.Rosenbach WE and Taylor RL, 1998, Contemporary Issues in Leadership, (edit) William E. Rosenbach, Robert L. Taylor, Westview Press,Boulder, CO.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The Article Summaries and Reaction Paper Management of Computers - Essay Example Proper management of computers in the classroom and lab are so significant in the learning process of the students and so to the security and life of the computer system itself. The Net Support School or NSS, offers a comprehensive and proper management in the use of computers in classroom and computer lab. Their main objective is how to manage the use of computer, printers, and the devices more effectively. Teachers should act as administrator to control the user privileges of the students, they can also log-in and log-off remotely to student's computers through his unit. They can also monitor the screen of every student simultaneously as to observe what the students are doing. During the discussions, monitors or screens of the student's computers should be blank, keyboard and mouse must be locked to gain their focus and attentions. Considering that computer printing is important, teachers should also control the page limit of every student. Computers are subjective to malwares, spywares and other form of viruses, thus teacher or laboratory in-charge should not allow copying of files from USB devices and CDROMS to the hard drives or hard disk. The capabili ty to transfer files or handouts to selected computers and even to all units is also an advantage with regard to time management. In summarizing the proper management of computers, teachers can control various computer privileges such as; application and internet metering and control, teacher security, internet safe search, printer control and device control (Intel.com). Like the Net Support School, Intel Education Initiative also explained how to manage the computer use effectively, because they know that allocating more time for students in using the computer is so important. They are also taking into consideration about the subject matter, like, having a focus on discrete activities, where work activities are well-defined by the teachers to let the students do a desirable project immediately. They believed that computers must not be used in internet research during work activities for it is just a waste of time, since it could be assigned as homework to students. Creating a checklist for a task and a timeline respectively will help students to be more productive and efficient toward their work. It is also important that proper and appropriate use of computer must be implemented, and whatever inappropriate action will result in losing and deactivation of students' computer access and privilege as a form of their punishment. The computer classroom m ust be made available before school time, during break time, and after school time especially for students who don't have computers at home (Netsupportschool.com). In relation to my own professional thinking, both of the two articles were implementing better practice in proper management of computers in classroom and computer lab. I agree that the teachers should also be the administrator at the same time in terms of giving user access and privilege. Aside from the teaching procedures and guidelines, being a good administrator will also result to harmonious and smooth sailing learning for students. I also agree that during the discussions and defining of task, the monitor, mouse and keyboard should be disabled to let the students listen attentively. In addition to their principles of management, I would like to encourage that the classroom and com
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Literature review of nursing leaders - Essay Example The Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines quality of care in hospitals as the level to which health services offered to individuals increase the certainty of expected health results and are in harmony with current professional expertise. With this standard definition, quality indictors include death, disability, discomfort, disease and dissatisfaction (Yragui et al, 2013). However, recent medical practitioners have shifted way from the usual negative to the positive aspects of quality. This has led to the innovation of the description of quality health care is the safe, effective and equitable services that health practitioners give to patients ( Mitchell). Curtis et al (2011) defines nurse leaders as medical practitioners who order instructions to medical students or co-workers. In addition, the two claim that every leader in whichever position merges their circle of influence with clinical practise. This goes hand in hand with Yraguis (2013) suggestion that anyone who is in authority and has disciples who rely on their expertise is a leader. Nurse leaders have many roles to perform in the hospital because of their influence to other nurses. One such role is providing organizational support. Nurse leaders are expected to motivate nurses and make them feel appreciated in the hospital (Morse, 2007). The nurses should feel needed in the organization and that their efforts are recognized. Nurse leaders help improve practice levels when they are responsive to patient concerns. They can also make other care providers believe that the management is concerned with high-quality care. This would in turn encourage care providers to give specialized care to patients, as agreed by Yargui (2013).The providers will also embrace positive attitude and behaviour. Employees who receive compliments from employers would have better attitudes. The nurse leaders should also give an aggression free environment to other care providers. They should
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Transfer the answer(the red mark character) to the question use totally different sentence but exactly the same meaning - Essay Example The curve illustrates government, businesses and consumers ability to buy actual Gross Domestic Product. MV=PY (the equation used in determining exchange) indicates the quantity of M (money supply) that is required to support certain units of PY (nominal GDP) for V (certain quantities of money). Expansion monetary principle has the ability to buy extra outputs and the ability to adjust money supply. When LM curve shifts outwards, the increase in demand for the actual GDP is realized at each unit of actual interest rates. c. Suppose government expenditures are increased to stimulate economic activity but no other policy action is taken. Explain why and under what conditions an increase in government expenditures will increase aggregate demand. (20 points) As the government increases its spending, interest rates also rise since initial rise in actual Gross Domestic Product triggers bond sales to compensate for additional output assuming the supply of money is constant. Increase in interest rates is alsso influenced by the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s move to borrow money to cater for the rise in expenditures. A rise in purchase of bonds increases moneyÃ¢â¬â¢s effective velocity. Expansionary monetary rules only works in a condition where people have held their cash as assets, and when they react to the increased interest rates by cutting on the money held through buying more bonds. 2. Explain why the aggregate supply curve is vertical (in a graph with Price on the vertical axis and real GDP on the horizontal axis) under Classical economic assumptions and positively sloped in Keynesian analysis. (30 points) When workers have fully adjusted to the economic conditions, there is a vertical curve in aggregate supply. Full adjustments to economic situations and response to changes in labor market is possible because the workers have sufficient knowledge of the economic situation. The overall result is wage levels will decrease or increase depending
Monday, August 26, 2019
Save our city - Essay Example However, with continuous human interference with Venetian ecology, the city is now more prone to floods from high-rise tides. The utilization of mudflats for construction and diversion of rivers and other similar actions have disturbed the ecological balance of Venice with the Arabian Sea. This is the main reason for Venice getting floods during high tides and heavy rains. (Nosengo). It is the Italian name of the engineering solution for saving Venice. Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi initiated this costly project and declared the working on it in December 2001. The project cost is around USD 2.6 billion and it is scheduled to complete in 2011, with the construction of hollow gates starting in 2006.The project being an engineering solution to save Venice from floods involves construction of 78 hollow metal gates, having the height of 20m with thickness of 5m. The placement of these gates is at three main inlets of this lagoon. (Nosengo). Many environmentalists have shown concerns about the project as they feel that even a few hours of closure of gates can cause tremendous disturbance to the ecosystem of this lagoon. Politicians have expressed fears that money meant for this project will be diverted elsewhere in the city. Deputy Mayor of Venice, Gianfranco Bettin has been the most forthright in his criticism of MOSE, saying that it is Ã¢â¬Å"expensive, hazardous and probably uselessÃ¢â¬ . (Nosengo). The strong criticism to the technical feasibility of MOSE is from Paolo Antonio, who was born in Venice and works with Laboratory of Physical Geography in Meudon, France. His main concern relates to MOSE being developed keeping in mind the 1966 major floods, which are unlikely to occur for another 165 years. He says the project cannot offer result-oriented solution for smaller floods. His other concern relates to the rapid rise in water levels during the closure of gates. However, supporters of MOSE argue that 1966 can
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Ancient Rome - Essay Example Since then, Rome somewhat created a new sect of Christianity in which became so influential in the world making Rome as the seat and capital of the Roman Catholic religion in the form of Papacy or the Pope who is considered as the leader of this religion. Most of the Popes who were ordained came from Rome and a huge number of them provided influential beliefs and doctrines to modern-day churches in the world today as they were considered as infallible of the believers of this religion. Up to present, doctrines from the papal seat are considered as holy and a decree that must be observed and respected among the members of the Roman Catholic Church worldwide. In fact, Carr (2005) stated, "the infallibility of Pope is not a doctrine that suddenly appeared in Church teaching; rather it is a doctrine which was implicit in the early church." Upon analyzing these, we can comprehend on how powerful the influence of Rome is. In relation to the religion, Rome also influenced the belief of numerous numbers of people by means of Roman Mythology. Although, many accounts claims that the latter is only inspired by Greek mythology, this belief by the Romans has its uniqueness and is somewhat a guiding light of some in their lives up to date.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Food Security in Post-War Sierra Leone - Essay Example This essay stresses that food production was negatively impacted raising concerns of international agencies owing to declining agricultural sector charged with feeding a conflicted nation. After years of confrontation, the rebels were suppressed and signed a treaty that marked the end of armed conflict and the beginning of recovery for the nation. Among the agenda by the newly elected regime was reconciliation, reconstruction of the country by adopting resolutions that upheld universal education, children rights, and food security. Focusing on food security, this paper seeks to examine the dynamics of agriculture with regard to effects of the civil war and strides towards achieving food security in Sierra Leone after the war. This paper makes a conclusion that the civil war halted economic development that is essential for enhancing agricultural performance in the country. The research systems related with agricultural practices were severely affected following the destruction of research infrastructure such as laboratories and farms. Similarly, the civil war saw the well-trained scientists and research personnel flee the country and abandon their role in food security. This characterized the breakdown of local authorities and other structures if devolved governance, which contributed to the collapse of essential services. The civil conflict also affected livestock in the country with marked depletion of herds of the common breeds. According to the World Health Organization (n.d.), food security describes the availability and consistent access to food where a household thrives without the fear of food shortage. Following years of civil war, Sierra Leone faced challenges with feeding its citizenry after su bsistent farmers were ejected from their farms or fled the conflict. For this reason, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s agricultural sector was in ruins and the country ranked among the poorest in the world. The establishment of comprehensive strategies towards rebuilding the nation after the war reveals a promising future of food security. Reconstruction and development of Sierra Leone after the war posed significant challenges with regard to food security and restoration of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s food basket. This was a presidential priority as the
Friday, August 23, 2019
The Business Environment in Asia - Essay Example The top 30 companies in Indonesia belonged to the Salim Group and to Suharto's children. After the recession, new family conglomerates entered the scene but the structure of the private sector did not undergo substantial change. The economy continues to boom and the family businesses benefit. In Indonesia, the state plays the most vital role in the growth of the business groups. Lobbying and corruption are prevalent in conducting business and due to their continued influence, businessmen become politicians (Mahmood, 2011). Large-scale towns in Indonesia have their own police and their own government including private taxation collection. All public facilities such as health, water, sewerage, and sanitation are controlled by this self-styled government in individual townships. The business has so much of political clout and influence that they are able to sustain opaque ownership pyramid structure which originates in some other nation and develops monopoly as in the case of Instant No odles that belongs to the Salim Group. Such a system has its own disadvantages and advantages. While it provides capital, infrastructure, and source of business talent and entrepreneurship, it creates moral hazard, ethnic tensions, and state capture.Importance of building relationships is critical to the success of business in Indonesia. Relationships with the government officials help in expediting the bureaucratic process. It helps in streamlining the applications for obtaining licenses, permits, and information.... Indonesia The top 30 companies in Indonesia belonged to the Salim Group and to SuhartoÃ¢â¬â¢s children. After the recession new family conglomerates entered the scene but the structure of the private sector did not undergo substantial change. The economy continues to boom and the family businesses benefit. In Indonesia the state plays the most vital role in the growth of the business groups. Lobbying and corruption are prevalent in conducting business and due to their continued influence businessmen become politicians (Mahmood, 2011). Large scale towns in Indonesia have their own police and their own government including private taxation collection. All public facilities such as health, water, sewerage and sanitation are controlled by this self-styled government in individual townships. The business have so much of political clout and influence that they are able to sustain opaque ownership pyramid structure which originates in some other nation and develops monopoly as in the case of Instant Noodles that belongs to the Salim Group. Such a system has its own disadvantages and advantages. While it provides capital, infrastructure and source of business talent and entrepreneurship, it creates moral hazard, ethnic tensions and state capture. Importance of building relationships is critical to the success of business in Indonesia. Relationships with the government officials help in expediting the bureaucratic process. It helps in streamlining the applications for obtaining licenses, permits and information (Facing the Challenge, n.d.). The national officials or pegawai negeri such as the notary in Indonesia are treated with respect. Such initiatives have facilitated the
Investigating the Sources and Use of Financial Information in the Management of Prison - Essay Example The research proposal is set to investigate the sources and use of financial information in the management of the prison service in England and Wales. Justification There are various sources and uses of financial information in the management of an organization. However, these sources and uses differ from one organization to the other. Financial information is significant to an organization because it assists in rating the performance of the organization. The information also assists in improving financial auditing and management of the organization. Proper management is the key element to the success of any organization. The research is of great importance because it will help the prisons and the government to conduct duties efficiently. Thus, knowing the sources and uses of the financial information will help the government and the prison department in better management of the prison services in England and Wales. Review of Literature The main purpose of the Prison Service in Engla nd and Wales is to offer services to the public by keeping in custody those who have committed crimes; looking after these individuals humanely; and assisting them to lead useful and law-abiding lives during custody and after release. In order to support this purpose, the Prison Service has four objectives: to securely hold the prisoners, to minimize the possibility of prisoner re-offending, to offer well-ordered and safe establishments in which to treat the prisoners decently, lawfully, and humanely, and to offer an effective escort and custody service to criminal courts (Cope 2010, pix). Her MajestyÃ¢â¬â¢s Prison Service (HMPS) runs 127 prisons and training centres throughout Wales and England. In a number of key areas, all the 127 prisons run independently with no centralized oversight and operations. The prison service lacks a shared system for the management of procurement, human resources, and finances (Hp 2009, p1). Each of the prison maintains its own exclusive financial s ystem. Data tracking, software, and the staff responsible for handling finances and inputting data vary at each location. Thus, HMPS does not have access to the organization wide view of the finances. Therefore, the prison service has found it difficult to measure its performance, enhance financial auditing, and target areas to minimize costs (Hp 2009, p2). In the past few years, HMPS installed an Oracle-based financial system to centralize its financial reporting and accounting, and also to offer a wide and encompassing image of the financial activities of the prison service. This ensures that the personnel from various facilities and departments are conscious of the financial impacts when making decisions. Higher quality data management and improved transparency and a devoted focus of the finance resources on exceptional financial issues have led to the realization of the mentioned benefits (Hp 2009, p7). Improved financial transparency and accessibility of timely and meaningful f inancial data or information across the organization has enhanced decision-making thus, has led to better operational performance (Oracle 2009, p2). The United Kingdom (UK) sector has undergone significant changes in risk management. The UK criminological research on the prisons has not explored the manner in which the general corporate governance and the financial management at various levels of the prison sector, have been
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Urban legends Essay According to Tom Harris, urban legends are modern fictional stories or myths passed from person to person and frequently have the elements of caution, horror or humor. Most of the urban legends are always false though some have proven true. They are mostly always inspired by a true story but tend to change in the course of transmission from one person to another. Moreover, it is hard to follow back an urban legend to its source, this is because it seems to come from everywhere with slight variation each time. James M. Henslin, on the other hand describes an urban legend as Ã¢â¬Å"a deliciously entertaining taleÃ¢â¬ the truth of which is unverifiable. Thematically, they are characterized by some elements of horror, warning embarrassment, humor, appeal to empathy and morality. Their unexpected twists though always weird, are sometimes so reasonable enough to be taken as the truth. One example of an urban legend is that is exemplified by Harris is called the Vegas organ harvestersÃ¢â¬ . In this legend, it is reported that a man meets a woman in an Vegas pub and have a drink together, the observer apparently relates how the two hit it off but at one time the man passes out. The story adds that the man later wakes up to find himself in a bathtub covered in ice. There is a phone near him and a note telling him to Ã¢â¬Å"call 911 or you will dies. Ã¢â¬ When he is taken to hospital, he the doctor tell him that he had a major surgery and one of his kidneys had been taken. This story, though not true has the basic elements of an urban legend. First it has an element of horror in it; the man realizing that his kidney has been harvested. It also encompasses an element of caution. Vegas being among the most widely visited places on earth; the caution is to avoid meeting people you do not know so well. Of the two authors, Thomas Harris is clearer and I agree with him in most of his dissection of urban legends. His simple examples and method of following back a legend to its most probable source is interesting. In my own perspective, urban legends are beneficial in some ways. One is that by cautioning people on what to do and what not to do, they make people careful about what they do. Moreover they also entertain. References Henslin, James M. Sociology: A Down-to-earth Approach. Allyn and Bacon, 1993 Harris, Thomas E. Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles, and Pragmatics. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Evaluation Of The Claim Rousseaus Social Contract Philosophy Essay This essay will begin from the premise that, far from advocating a collectivist contract of society and sacrificing the individual to such state, Rousseaus Social Contract establishes protective measures for the individual through the conception of the general will. Firstly, an exploration of the content and main features of Rousseaus Social Contract will be undertaken, before a critical evaluation of its relation to the protection of the individual in society will be offered, principally through the notion of the general will. This essay will then reject opponents claims that this inevitably leads to individual freedom being sacrificed to the community, as will it reject the argument that Rousseaus contractarianism is either illiberal or totalitarian. It will conclude by defending the perception of Rousseaus Social Contract as an advocate an egalitarian liberal society. The will of the General Will The evaluation at hand presupposes that Rousseaus Social Contract champions collectivism, or communitarianism, and in doing so rejects liberalism which places at its heart the autonomy of the individual. The thesis of such an argument is that through various measures, society as a collective usurps the ability for an individual to maintain independence or free will in the social contract. Yet this examination disregards both the historical context of Rousseau and the underlying purpose of Rousseaus work, which was to provide an explanation of the conditions in which, man being individualist by nature and simultaneously wanting the protection and advantages of living in a civil society, both of these can be achieved without the need for a loss of liberty. Rejecting this collectivist position, which will be countered in greater depth later on in this essay, it is important to explore the content and main features of Rousseaus Social Contract, to remind us that a liberal political theory needs to concern itself not only with the identity of liberty, but also with identifying the conditions under which that liberty can be sustained (Hampsher-Monk 1995: 275). Thus, the Social Contracts central concern is to create a climate in which popular sovereignty is realisable, and Rousseaus lineage of work therein is logically concerned with strengthening the case for and to counter any potential challenges to it (V. Gourevitch 2003: xxiii). Popular sovereignty, for Rousseau, was the very basis for the protection of individuals: the Sovereign, being formed wholly of the individuals who compose it, neither has nor can have any interest contrary to theirs. (Social Contract I: 7.5) Inherent in Rousseaus conception of sovereignty is the general will, which governs the relations of all men, enforcing popular sovereignty and forming the foundation of Rousseaus theory: Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole. (Social Contract I: 6.9) Simply put, the general will is the common good of all men, and yet this concept is precisely what provides protection of the individual, since Rousseaus conception is such that the individual and the collective are so entwined that they cannot be separated without returning to the state of nature. Yet, Rousseau does concede that particular (or private) wills of the individual do exist in so far that each individual, as a man, may have a particular will contrary or dissimilar to the general will which he has as a citizen (SC I: 7.7). This presents a quandary: natural liberty and particular wills are one and the same by definition, but the very purpose of the Social Contract, to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, united himself all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before (SC I: 6.4) proposes that a solution to reconcile the two must necessarily be presented. This is presented two-fold: firstly, Rousseau claims that the general will be naturally discoverable, by taking away the pluses and minuses of particular wills, which innately cancel each other out, leaving only the general will as the sum of the differences (SC 2: 3.2); secondly, for whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body. This means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free; for this is the condition which, by giving each citizen to his country, secures him against all personal dependence. (SC I: 7.8) The latter account has frequently been the origin of the so-called totalitarian thesis, a popular assessment of Rousseau but which has been convincingly rejected by recent study and will be similarly critiqued later in this essay. Thus, Rousseau acknowledges, by virtue of admitting that particular wills do exist, that in the social compact, man does sacrifice his natural, absolute liberty. Yet, as will be argued, rather than sacrificing individual freedom altogether, the social compact offers something that cannot be attained in the state of nature civil liberty; ultimately, this is far more favourable, and a truer, more secure, representation of individual autonomy. Rousseau outlines that self-love (amour de soi), reason and freedom are all fundamental features of human nature, and we have a basic interest in ensuring protection of our person and the goods we need to survive and live well (Cohen 2010: 11). Similar to other social contract theorists such as Hobbes and Locke, Rousseaus state of nature, that is to say the natural state of things before the social contract is conceived, offers absolute liberty on one hand, but no protection for rights on the other. Protection of rights offered in civil society, including the protection of property, is non-existent in this state; the social contract is Rousseaus response to those calling for the reconciliation of liberty and the protection of rights without sacrificing liberty of the individual, and here Rousseau differs from his contemporaries in that he advocates a different conception of sovereignty. Liberty in the social contract is exchanged, but this is not to say it is sacrificed, as Rawls states: We gain the same rights over others as they gain over us, and this we have done by agreeing to an exchange of rights for reasons rooted in our fundamental interests, including the interest in our freedom. (Rawls 2008: 221) Thus, the general will, being the will the community, appears at first to be antithetical to the interests of individuals. It is an abstract theory, but nevertheless exudes clarity of purpose, even if Rousseau does not definitively express how the general will is found. As has been touched upon, society, being inescapable without returning man back to his origins as a primitive being, is such that the community and the individual are permanently coexisting and interdependent. The general will the will of the community is thus to Rousseau a reflection of the common good, since all rational persons have in their very nature a concern for their self-preservation and freedom; they would thus be harming themselves to will something for the community (in which they are inextricably linked) that is distinctly separate from their own particular will. Consequently, the common good reflects an equal concern with the well-being of each person, and as a result an equal concern for individual a utonomy, since all people share the very same conception of the common good (Cohen 2010: 15); the public interest and common liberty are synonymous withpersonal interest and liberty.'(Boucher 2009: 278) The Legislator The Social Contract offers various measures through which the general will is made discoverable, or else enforced, as briefly mentioned above. Whilst forcing man to be free seems adversative to liberal political theory (which this essay argues that Rousseau follows), the institutions that Rousseau describes within The Social Contract are analogous to popular sovereignty and hence compatible with individual autonomy as we have seen. These include the institutions of a legislator, or law-giver, civil religion and censorship. Rousseau acknowledges that man does not necessarily know what he wants, or is best for him and so needs the guidance of wisdom and experience in the form of these institutions to aid the formation of the social contract. In particular, there is a need for a legislator to [lead] to the union of understanding and will in the social body (SC 2: 6.10). This legislator would do so by reason of his genius, [and]Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ no less by reason his office, which is neith er magistracy, nor Sovereignty (SC 2: 7.4). Thus Rousseau depicts a figure who is distinct from the sovereignty of the people and hence neither superior (a master) nor inferior to the community: he works in the interest of discovering the general will (by means of persuasion), and thus by deduction solely motivated by the protection of liberty and freedom of the individual. Of course, by separating the legislator from the people, Rousseau is opening himself to claims of elitism, which are potentially at odds with the egalitarian free community of equals (Cohen 2010: 10) that is the outcome of his conception of the general will. However, he counters these criticisms by making clear that he who holds command over laws ought notÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦to have it over men; or else his laws would be the ministers of his passions and would often merely serve to perpetuate his injustices. (SC 2: 7.4) This Montesquieu-esque separation of powers (who, along with Diderot, preceded Rousseau in coining the term general will and who evidently influenced Rousseaus thought) safeguards the sovereignty of the people, and whilst the legislator is applicable to the community at large, Rousseau expresses its worth to individual autonomy rather than the collective authority: If we ask in what precisely consists the greatest good of all, which should be the end of every system of legislation, we shall find it reduce itself to two main objects, liberty and equality (SC 2: 11.1) Rousseaus civil concept of liberty It has been established that the social contract contrasts two necessities of human nature: the need for security and political authority (embodied in the social contract as the need for a political community) and the need for individual autonomy and liberty. Yet there must inevitably be a concession. One of the towering liberal philosophers of the twentieth century, Isaiah Berlin, famously drew a distinction between two concepts of liberty, those of positive and negative liberty (Berlin 1958), and this is pertinent in its applicability in Rousseaus Social Contract. Whilst negative (absolute) liberty allows the individual full autonomy in the absence of external forces (coercive or otherwise), Rousseau concedes that to reconcile the two necessities a different conception of liberty is needed, and this Berlin called positive liberty: the freedom to, as opposed to freedom from, act with individual autonomy, protected by certain measures acting as safeguards. This, to Rousseau, was civi l liberty: What man loses by the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything he tries to get and succeeds in getting; what he gains is civil liberty and the proprietorship of all he possesses. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦we must clearly distinguish natural liberty, which is bounded only by the strength of the individual, from civil liberty, which is limited by the general will; and possession, which is merely the effect of force or the right of the first occupier, from property, which can be founded only on a positive title. (SC 1: 8.2) This is an important distinction to make, but not one that this essay believes forces a dilution of liberty. Berlin (1958) draws these two distinct concepts to further his argument that the only true form of liberty is that in a negative sense. Nonetheless, liberalism to a modern scholar associates itself with the protection of individual rights, such as those of proprietorship; this has been engrained in liberal theory, which arguably finds its origin in Rousseaus Social Contract. To Rousseau, the liberty that is afforded to man in the state of nature (being the liberty that Berlin favours) is detrimental to the human condition. On the other hand, under the social contract, man gains an equivalent for everything he loses (SC 1: 6.8). From this we might take that liberty under the social contract is a zero-sum gain; liberty is exchanged, but not lost. However, the benefit of civil liberty is that man gains an increase in force for the preservation of what he has. (SC 1: 6.8). Roussea u develops upon this by commenting that the right of first occupier, which in the state of nature is so weak (SC 1: 9.2), is respected by individuals and the community alike: possessors, being regarded as depositaries of public property, and having their rights respected by all the members of the StateÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, have, by a cession which benefits both the public and still more themselves, acquired, so to speak, all that they gave up. (SC 1: 9.6) We might, over and above all this add, to what man acquires in the civil state, moral liberty, which alone makes him truly the master of himself; for the mere impulse of appetite is slavery, while obedience to a law which we prescribe to ourselves is liberty (SC 1: 8.3). This is a striking statement, and of course not one that Berlin, among others, accepts. Berlin states that to coerce a man is to deprive him of freedom (Berlin 1958: 6). Yet Rousseaus social contract is not coercive in this sense. Man does not accept the general will through the persuasion of authority, but because it is rational to do so as the general will is equally a manifestation of ones own true will. Rousseau does not deprive the individual of free will: far from it, he expects that in the social contract man will choose the general will with this very same free will of the individual. By man developing his moral faculties through the conception of the civil state, Rousseau claims that justice triumphs over in stinct, intelligence over stupidity and irrationality (SC 1: 8.1). Thus, in forming a civil community (state), man develops an appreciation of the liberty of other individuals within that community, which is mutually protective; the moral intelligence that man formulates is of greater benefit to individual freedom and autonomy than his very same (absolute) liberty in the state of nature. Communitarianism and illiberalism It is clear to see that myriad critics, among them Berlin, reject Rousseaus contracts protection of liberty, instead arguing that his strong conception of political community intrinsically works to oppose this. Berlins extraordinary claim that Rousseau was one of the most sinister and formidable enemies of liberty in the whole history of modern thought (Berlin 2002: 4) certainly has great impact, a surprisingly ferocious attack on a theorist who had at his heart a desire to protect the freedom of human condition in society. Thus it is necessary to delve into Berlins criticism further to understand his reasoning. Berlin saw Rousseaus conjecture being particularly dangerous to liberty. In Berlins view, Rousseau had associated freedom with self-determination, yet self-determination with obedience to the general will. The notion of the general will, being quite separate from individual (particular) wills, went against Berlins conception of liberalism, for it alleged the existence of a common interest encompassing the interests of all men: an absolute, single set of rules for all, which Berlin saw as being a divergence from the pluralist tradition of liberalism. Rousseau also went some way to disguising mans true nature, as Berlin saw it, by conceiving man as a citizen being, rather than a lone, individual creature an unrealistic transformation of human interest. Furthermore, Rousseau was said to have changed the concept of mans will from what he actually desires empirically, to a will that he ought, or should, desire, but may not through the nature of the human condition (Berlin 2002). Emphasis ed by his strong Calvinist influence, we could also add to this Rousseaus deeply-rooted sense of morality, a sense of right and wrong, and what it means to live a good (and bad) life, which we can take Berlin to object to on the basis of its limitation on individual choice and self-determination.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Contrast And Compare Two Different Festivals Tourism Essay According to oxford dictionary the definition of festival is A series of different types of performances which includes film show, music, dance, fair etc. And it also occurs in the same place and the same day in once a year. Festival is that things which is the aspect of a country. Its standing for people amusements and the historical background of a country. Festival is organized by people or group or organization. Different kinds of festivals are found in a country such as cultural festival, local festival, national festival, ritual festival etc. cultural festival is very important festival. It represents the culture and heritage of one country. Now questions can arise that what is cultural festival, how people celebrate it, and so on. For giving the answers of these questions I have decided to choose two different countriess and find out the cultural festival of these countries and also try to make a compare and contrast of these two festival to show the differences and similarities. Countries that I choose: For making contrasts and compares of two different festivals I have choose two different countries for this purpose. The countries are Oman and Italy. Oman: Oman is an Asian country. Its situated in the middle of Asia. It has many cultural contents which make Oman rich and for a huge affluent of cultural contents Oman is also known as the culture capital of the Arabian world.. Italy: Italy is a European country. Its located in south-central of Europe. Italy have many cultural ingredients which make Italy exceptional then others country. Festivals that I choose: Oman: In Oman the most regular, popular and significant festival is MUSCAT FESTIVAL. This festival is one of the traditional festivals in Oman. The residences of Muscat eagerly wait for this day in every year. Through this festival people celebrate their cultural heritage. Italy: In Italy the most anticipate, common and popular festival is Venice festival. Its called in Italy (Carnevale di Venzia). Its an ancient festival of Italy. People all over the Italy wait for this festival very enthusiastically actually not only just Italian people but also the European people wait for this stunning festival. Origin: Muscat festival: The origin of this festival is very significance. It starts in 1998 since then its going on very proudly. This festival established to get back the cultural heritage of Omans people. Venice festival: The Venice Festival is the most internationally known festival celebrated in Venice, Italy, as well as being one of the oldest. It begins in the 15th century. During the 1970s, the Italian government decided to bring back the history and culture of Venice, and sought to use the traditional Carnival as the centerpiece of their efforts. Compare: Similarities: Both were established to bring back the cultural legacy of their country. Dissimilarities: Venice festival is more ancient than Muscat festival. Duration of these festivals: Muscat festival: Its held in January of every year and continuing for a month. Venice festival: its held in February of every year and continuing for few days (10 or 14). Celebrations: Muscat festival: Omans people celebrate their festival very stunningly. On these days different types of performances held in Muscat. The list of performances is categorized into Cultural Events, Desert Panorama, Family Village Events, Skill Shows and Events for Women. By performing on musics and dances many local and international artists increase the enchantment of this festival. Local artists usually sing their folk songs and perform traditional dances. For adults people different types of programs are held by famous Omani and Arab intellectual. Like discussion and debate on earthly and environmental topics. There are also different artistic, educational workshop, parades, seminars, poetry readings, literary gatherings and exhibition. This festival is very welcome by children. Because of this festival they find enormous happiness. This is the huge opportunity for them to enjoy and fulfill their wishes. Through this festival they can attend concert, game show, theatres and so on. Venice festival: In Venice festival people wear mask to disguise themselves. as wearing masks hid any form of identity between social classes. By wearing mask people attend everywhere. Venice festival presents many events such as music, ballet, fireworks night, mardi gras, theatre and circus street entertainments all around the city. This is a festival for spending money. On this festival people spend a huge amount of money lavishly on the purpose of gambling and other worldly pleasure. For gambling many gamble boots are set up all over the streets. For represent exotic animals and bird many dens, boots are set up. In addition to jugglers and ropewalkers performing on the streets; wine shops, restaurants, cafes and even brothels. For making this festival more attractive many contests are held for the participants and spectators along the way. Some of these include the Best Mask Contest for children and Music Concert Contests for local bands. Compare: Similarities: Both of these festivals represent the cultural view of their own country. Both of these festivals have the same entertaining sources such as concerts, theatres, game shows etc. Dissimilarities: In Venice festival people have a great chance to spend money lavishly but in Muscat festival people spend money but not as like as Italian people. The main attraction of Venice festival is to wear mask people wear their traditional mask for this festival but Muscat festival doesnt contain this type of thing. In Muscat festival there is a village which represent the cultural heritage of Muscat but Venice festival dont include this type of thing. The main attraction of these festivals: Venice festival (Venitian mask): Masks have always been a central feature of the Venetian festival. The masks are created by specially appointed craftsmen called the Mask Makers. Wearing mask people come out down road for celebrating this festival. Muscat festival (Indigenous village): A massive heritage village is set up to showcase Omans rich traditions and heritage, and light is shed on Muscats history and its various arts and crafts. This village is known as Indigenous village. This village locates in the Qurum National Park. Significance of this festival: Venice: This festival has noble purpose and that is no difference between rich and poor. This discrimination is lapped by wearing musk. This festival also gives an opportunity to let go of everything and simply enjoy life like it was meant to be. But among all the joyfulness of the masks, there sometimes appears a black mask of Death reminding people at the carnival that nothing lasts forever. Oman: This festival stands for people recreation and entertainment. This festival exposes the heritage and culture of Oman. And by this the new generations are able to take the savour of their countrys ancient culture and heritage. Compare: Similarities: Both of these are stand for entertaining people. Both of these festivals are stand for noble reason. Dissimilarities: Venice festival gives a great effort to remove social differences on the other hand Muscat festival emphasis on exposing their culture. On Venice festival people wear mask but Muscat festival people dont have to do this. Recently celebrated festivals: Muscat: Muscat festival of 2007 was started on 1st January and goes on 2nd February. The theme of the festival was Living Culture and Family Fun. Every year this festival has its own theme. Figure 1: The logo of Muscat festival Figure 2: Festival picture of children games On this day different types of performances like Arab music performance, Indian music performance were held. For children and adult there were children and adult theatre. In whole the festival was the for that time. Venice:Venice Carnival of 2007 was begun on 9th February and end on 20th and it was a successful festival. There were concerts, dances, games and so on. People had a great entertainment and fun. . Figure1: people wearing with Conclusion:
Monday, August 19, 2019
Diversity Among People "Each person's map of the world is as unique as the person's thumbprint. There are no two people alike. No two people who understand the same sentence the same way . . . So in dealing with people, you try not to fit them to your concept of what they should be." (Milton Erickson) We are all distinguished and united by differences and similarities according to our gender, culture, language, age, race, our sexual identity, and in many cases income level. There are these diversity qualities that challenge our intellect and emotions as we learn to work and live together in harmony. Diversity is not just about gender, skin color, ethnic background, religion, speaking different languages, or belonging to a different culture, it's also about thinking and expressing things differently. One thing that plays a very important role is "Language", what we as people use to communicate with. A language can bring one nation together and separate it the same time. In today's society, unfortunately if you don't speak the language that majority of people speak you're often put down and even ignored. And in the same society being 'different" it is not easy. What I mean by different is having a different background, speaking "a broken English"( Tan), being part of a different cul ture. Even though most of us know that this nation is formed on diversity, people still haven't learned to tolerate one another's differences and somehow learn from them however, everyday that goes by more people are realizing even more that these differences make us who we are. They shape the way we think and express yourself and our opinion about others. As humans, we have a unique ability for language which gives expression to our many-s... ...ity groups within the United States. Should serve as a comparative study of the diverse cultural contributions, experiences, or world views of two or more ethnic or racial minority groups in the U.S. The course should focus on the study of the social, economic, political, or psychological dimensions of relations between and among racial, ethnic, and gender groups in the U.S. All these criteria's would help people learn how to deal with diversity and become more knowledgeable about it. There's many people in this world of ours and they are all different, they are part of a different religion, gender, background, and with different sex identity and what brings us all together is the understanding that we are all unique and by giving each other a chance to express our ideas and opinions we grow as individuals and learn to appreciate others for who they are. home
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Reactions to Industrialism in Frankenstein and The Communist Manifesto Ã Ã Ã The radical changes of the nineteenth century were unlike any the world had seen before. A sense of these changes were felt by all in many aspects; not just politically, but in social and cultural means as well. When Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was published in 1831, it was clear that many general elements of the romantic era were well reflected. Similarly, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels' The Communist Manifesto appeared in 1848, a time of great national political revolutions throughout Europe. While textually these historic nineteenth century texts have little in common, it is clear however that they both are strong reactions to previous movements of European society. Underlying Shelley's Frankenstein are strong uses of romanticism, whereas The Communist Manifesto is undoubtedly opposing the consequences of the industrial revolution in Europe; both reactions of the past, yet effective in starkly different ways. Ã Frankenstein, like other English Romantics, placed great emphasis on the power of nature. The Arve Ravine, and the Valley of Chamounix exemplify the harmony and beautiful serenity of nature, and add to the romantic quality of the novel while sharply contrasting with the chaos of Victor's troubled mind. The Romantic movement can be seen as a protest against the rapid industrialization that was occurring in England at the time of Frankenstein's publication. While many interpretations are plausible, the novel depicts the fear that technology (and the human obsession with technology) would ultimately prove disastrous. The characters of Walton and Frankenstein are shaped by Romantic idealism, as manifested in their ... ...r a classless, productive, industrial society that was beneficial to all, the mere recognition of strength in numbers and class solidarity were fundamentally effective and paved the way not only for future governments but for future laborers. Ã Ã Works Cited Ã Lowe-Evans, Mary.Ã Frankenstein: Mary Shelly's Wedding Guest. New York:Ã Twayne Publishers, 1993. Ã Marx, Karl. Communist Manifesto. Birth of the Communist Manifesto. Ed. Dirk J. Ã Ã Struik. New York: International, 1971. 85-125. Ã Oates, Joyce Carol.Ã "Frankenstein: Creation as Catastrophe." Mary Shelly's Frankenstein.Ã Ed. Harold Bloom.Ã New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Ã Shelly, Mary.Ã Frankenstein: Or the Modern Prometheus.Ã New York: Penguin Books, 1978. Ã Tropp, Martin.Ã Mary Shelly's Monster.Ã Boston:Ã Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Ã
Saturday, August 17, 2019
In the quest for logical, supportable and verifiable scientific answers there are two basic methods of reasoning used to approach the subject matter to be studied. These are known as the deductive and the inductive approaches. The two approaches provide quite different lines of attack when attempting to prove or disprove social theories. The information that is gathered is used by social work researchers as supporting evidence to establish connections between theories and empirical data. Rafael Engel and Russell Schutt, The Practice of Research in Social Work, explain Ã¢â¬Å"Theories help us understand how social problems emerge; they guide us in the design of interventions to help individuals, groups or communitiesÃ¢â¬ (Rafael. Schutt. 2005. p. 39). In the case of deductive reasoning studies the research is begun from a theoretical basis, focused on a topic, and then narrowed to an; Ã¢â¬ËIf-ThenÃ¢â¬â¢ hypotheses that can be tested. Research is conducted to gather data through observations, to confirm or disprove the hypotheses. Inductive reasoning is in a sense a reverse study, as it is through observations made that have initially picked up on certain trends, or established regularities that the hypotheses or theory is developed. In the field of Social work research it is not at all uncommon to utilize both methods of research, and Engel and Schutt refer to this as the Ã¢â¬Å"Research CircleÃ¢â¬ (2005. p. 45). Research often involves variables, and hypotheses often must stand up to multiple studies to arrive at a conclusive answer. The authors cite the Sherman and BerkÃ¢â¬â¢s, 1984, study of domestic violence Ã¢â¬Å"as an example of how the research circle worksÃ¢â¬ (2005. p. 43). They said that first based on data regarding spousal abuse a hypothesis was developed regarding arrest rates. After data was researched that corresponded with the theory, the study was then followed up with inductive research based on the statistics of the data gathered. As noted often the researchers will go around the circle a number of time, as Sherman and BerkÃ¢â¬â¢s study did, adjusting variables and methods, to test a multitude of hypotheses. According to Engel and Schutt the Ã¢â¬Å"Inductive research process is more often the strategy used in qualitative methodsÃ¢â¬ (2005. p. 38), and that deductive is Ã¢â¬Å"Most often used in quantitative methodsÃ¢â¬ (2005. p. 38).
During high school years our minds have the greatest development. And whatever we have learned in high school we uses that knowledge to help us move on through college. At the high school age teenagers experiments different changes in their minds, bodies. A sometimes question comes up that at what age children should know about the sex. To the answer to that question is I believe at the age of 13-14 children and High School kids. High school should be teaching teenagers about different aspects of life, especially sex. A majority student does not get any sex education at home. Usually parents just ignore or avoid this kind of discussion or topic. So, that is why high school should teach students about sex. Since parents ignore giving knowledge about sex to their children, many of them turn to having unprotected sex because they are not educated about the matter. Their eyes are blind about the sex. Teenagers go to parties, they get drunk and they get involved physically with opposite sex. No one ever taught them to have protected sex. So females ends up getting pregnant. So, they would choose to have an abortion. Which is a very big debatable issue. Moreover, even if they not ends up getting pregnant some of the partners might have an aid and then they would get that aids. This could prevent by giving children some or more knowledge about sex. Since patents do not teach their children then sex education should be a vital part of a high school education. Personally, I believe that by giving students knowledge about sex in high school will help prevent teenage pregnancies and even the spread of disease such as aids. The out come would be save lives. In short, as parents we should support the High School and encourage them to teach our children about sex life. If parents were willing to educate their children at home then there would be no need for sex education. However, most of parents ignore sex topic and they would not prefer to discuss this topic in the family. Since the sex education does not exist at most of the homes, then there should be a need for sex education besides home, which is school.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Module Code: PM002 Class/Group: Group C Module Title: Research Design and Critique Assessment: Full Research Proposal Assignment Title: An investigation into the factors that influence the Glaswegian publicÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of car. Student ID Number: 2059626 Date of Submission: November 29th, 2012 An investigation into the factors that influence the Glaswegian publicÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of car. Rationale The number of automobiles had risen to over 1 billion vehicles all the world in 2010, which is 20 times more than this number in 1986(Sousanis, John,2011).Car plays a indispensable role in today's society, according to a survey from World Bank(2011), the number of ownership of motor vehicles per 1,000 people is more than 500 in most of developing countries, especially for Monaco, the number was 908(World Bank Data,2009). Although cars have become more and more commonplace, but the cars are still expensive commodity, also there is no doubt that the final decisions are usually made after ca reful consideration when people purchasing a car(Kathuria, Singla,2012). At the same time, as the vehicle types supplied to be chosen by consumers have become more and more various.When consumer facing with abundant of choices, they become more and more confused and irresolute. With the segmentation of automobile market, the factors that affect the public' car choices are more and more diversified. According to Couton et al. (2006), various studies have applied hedonic price modeling to show that price variation among new cars can be explained by differences in key product characteristics such as horsepower, engine capacity, speed, and safety features. However, these measurable variables may not be the main explanatory factors which will influence the choice of consumers.Based on the above mentioned content, this research will focus on the decisive factors which will impact the public's final choice of car, especially in the Glasgow area due to investigations and studies in the fiel d will be carried out and conducted in this city. Its results would probably benefit to car dealers and consumers. Especially for car manufacturers, they can according to consumer preferences to redesign and improve vehicles to gain better market performance. 1. What are the choices the public have when buying a car? 2. What are the main factors influencing publicÃ¢â¬â¢s choices? . What variables affect these factors? Annotate Bibliography Banerjee,S. (2010) ,Study on Consumer Buying Behavior During Purchase of a Second Car , Journal of Marketing & Communication ,6 (2),4-13. This essay describes that for different types of automobiles, the main factors affect consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s purchase is slightly different in choosing a particular brand is always based on the different set of consumers towards various preference parameter. For different market segments of vehicle, dimensions are different. A successful car brand has had to accept and adopt these dimensions.In addition, the author also pointed out that there are many common factors influence the public's choice between consumers to buying a second car and purchasing the first one, but there are some obvious differences between them. For example, functional level factor such as car efficacy and usefulness are main concerns for second car buyers. Moreover, this article also mentioned that a high level of investment in advertising and promotional activities may not be able to guarantee a high percentage of repeat purchase. However, a long-term stable customer relationship will probably increase the probability of second time purchase.This journal is effectively to analysis interrelationship between consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s first car and second car, and common facts which seem to influence the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s purchase behavior. The survey uses a probability sampling approach conducted with the passenger car owners in India with 525 samples. However, in this article, the author does not mention the relationship and impo rtance between satisfaction of customers on the second-hand value of the first car and loyalty for choosing the second-hand car, because a high level of satisfaction, may bring referral and repeat purchase.Randol E. Bucklin, S. Siddarth, Jorge M. Silva-Risso,(2008), Ã¢â¬Å"Distribution Intensity and New Car ChoiceÃ¢â¬ ,JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH, Vol. XLV, 473-496. This journal demonstrate that the relationship between 4S shops distribution intensity of cars and brand new car buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ choices in the U. S. automobile market. Different from price, effect of advertising, promotional activities and other factors, distribution intensity changes relatively slow, but the distribution intensity will be affected some variables, thereby might affect decisions of consumers buying cars.Additionally, this article used information on the U. S car sales transactions gave by the Power Information Network, which included the accurate geographic locations of consumers and dealers. Non-prob ability sampling method was used in 55 4S shops as a samples. Dealer accessibility, dealer concentration and dealer spread would determine distribution intensity and then will largely affect the choice of the people for the car brands.This journal is relevant to the topic of this research, firstly it provides information about what factors will influence the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of car, secondly it shows how the three main variables influence the distribution intensity of each brand, so that influence the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of car. However, this study focuses on only the distribution intensity about car dealers, makes no attempt to differentiate between various different types of car, and the conclusion might not suitable for the niche car brands. Beside this, the author might overlook the fact that distribution intensity ontributes to high-end car brands. Dharmaraj,C. , Clement,S. J. ,(2010). Brand Preference Factors of Passenger Cars: An Empirical Assessment, Indiana Univers ity Press, The IUP Journal of Brand Management, 7(3),19-33. This article mainly analyzes the factors which will influence consumer's automotive brand preference. According to the author's study, performance of passenger cars are considered as the most important factor which might dominate consumer's preference, especially for male consumers, but economic abilities are the bases of the preference.In addition, the marketing communication strategy of a car will also largely affect the overall decisions of consumers. In conclusion, the comprehensive strength of a car, such as safety factor, industrial design, stability, scientific and technological content, durability, daily use cost, re-sale value , fuel consumption, comforts and so on, each of them is factor influence people Ã¢â¬Ës preference and choice of car. This study is highly relevant to the topic of this research and demonstrates most of factors that will influent consumer purchase preference comprehensively and systematicall y.Although this survey collected data using questionnaires from 712 car buyers/owners by simple random sampling, there is not any variables about the respondents are addressed. In addition, the author offers no explanation for the distinction between Indian car market and developed countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ market, the simple random sampling method was conducted in a midsize Indian city. Therefore, it is slightly possible that the survey result might not apply for city of Glasgow. Baltas,G. , Saridakis,G. 2009),Ã¢â¬ Brand-name effects, segment differences, and product characteristics: an integrated model of the car marketÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(2), 143 Ã¢â¬â-151. This article discusses that price of car is a main factor influence the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s choice, and the price structure of new car market is determined by automobile characteristics, brand effects, and segment differences. A hedonic price experimental model is designed and implemented that includes b rand-name heterogeneity and functional characteristics.In addition, another extensive dataset model is applied to support the brand effects and hypotheses of segment differences. According to these two models, in mainstream car market, the functional characteristics determines automobile prices largely , however in high-end car market, incremental value is added to a car because its brand value , so the connotation of the brand value decide the price of prestige brands cars in large extent. The findings of this article include relevant information to this research. Firstly, it is a great probability that price of car is one of key facts which influence the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s choice.This article demonstrates that there are at least three reasons determine the structure of automobile prices, and analyzes the variables and decisive factors of prices in mainstream segments and high-end segments respectively. However, the research focuses on many of the variables affecting the price of car and does not take into account other factors such as the industrial design of a car and the impact of marketing strategies. At the same time, mentioned in the text, the implicit brand value will affect car prices, thereby affecting consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice, but it is possible that the brand price is difficult to be quantified accurately.Kathuria,L. M. , Singla,V. ,(2012) Purchase of Pre-Owned Small Cars in India: An Exploratory Study, The IUP Journal of Marketing Management, 11(2),63-75. This study highlights that the main factors impacting the buying choice of second hand small vehicle were purchasing power constraint, high cost-effective, improve driving skills, desire for car , high resale price, good quality of after-sales service, brand public praise and easy to maintenance. Additionally, families who want to buy new four-wheelers to replace old two-wheelers should be seen as a new market segment might be targeted for selling cars.This article contributes to understand differen t and similar factors between people buying a new small car and pre-owned car. Nevertheless, the article was just focus on small vehicle with a specification requirements of length? 4 meters and with an engine displacement? 1,500 cubic centimeters (cc) for diesel and petrol, therefore, the universality of the research results might have certain limitations. Methodology As can be seen from previous studies and related sources, the factors affecting people's choice can be divided into two parts to analysis respectively.The one part is factors that influence people to buy a new car and the other is factors that influence people to choose a used car. Moreover, the new car dealers and used car markets are also often separated. Therefore, an explanatory study to illustrate the relationship between the consumer preferences and purchase factors by using a quantitative method is essential. In addition , the relationship between these two parts, as well as the positive and negative effects of factors of two parts would be explored with exploratory study concluded by a qualitative method.In modern societies, the number of car owners is very numerous, so within a short period of time to collect the data information from a large population base which is very important and not very easy. Although a case study strategy could be used to explore a contemporary phenomenon in its real life context, but it may take more time and lack breadth which makes it hard to generalize results (Saunders et al. 2009: 141-154). Beside this, survey data usually comes from standardizing academic investigating behaviors and tools, so that might make results more authoritative and reliable.Therefore, survey is a suitable research strategy for this research. According to Bryman (2012) points out that Ã¢â¬Å"quantitative research may sometimes be untrusted because the data can be artificial and spuriousÃ¢â¬ . Because of there is a very numerous number of car owners, so a non-probability sampling would be used in this research. As here are almost 700,000 people who lived in the city of Glasgow, that means the sample size might bigger, a questionnaire is a data collection technique in which each person responds to the same set of questions, so questionnaire is more suitable for this research.Although the non-standardised interviews as a method is good for demonstrating the reasons for the decisions and attitudes of research participants (Saunders et al. 2009, 361), it would take too much time, also human and material resources. Ethic issues are defined as a situation or problem that needs people or organization to make a choice between options that must be evaluated as wrong (unethical) or right (ethical)(Business Dictionary,2012).According to the British Sociological Association(2004:2), the social research projects are designed and conducted, ethical issues are necessary to be taken into consideration. In this research, the non-maleficence which contains physical and indire ct harm is the cornerstone of all the ethical issues in the research (Saunders, el at. 2007: 181). In addition, the violation personal privacy and the protection of confidentiality may be the potential ethical issues.Maximum extent to avoid the occurrence of these ethical concerns, before the implementation of the access section of research, questionnaire participants will be informed: firstly,the purpose of this research, their participation is valuable, the results of the research may contribute to R & D and sales of new cars so that they can have a more suitable vehicle and a better car user experience; Secondly, respondents participate in this research follow the principles of voluntary and informed consent, whenever and wherever they can withdraw(Saunders et al, 2009:193); Thirdly, participants do not have to worry about their personal information will be faced with rick of leakage, because the questionnaire are anonymous.In addition, as car is a expensive commodity, questions on questionnaire about personal income and household economic situation of participants should be avoided, so as not to violate their privacy. Beside this, most of purchase of cars are family behavior, taking into account the special circumstances of some families, such as divorce, therefore the marriage status should avoid being asked, so as not to cause discomfort of participants. As Golafshani(2003:598) points out that the reliability is to ensure the consistency of research data collection and analysis. The risk of collecting data may do harmful to research reliability mainly relies on participants.According to Bell(2010:151), participants may finish the questionnaires inaccurately because of many reasons such as bad mood or time limited. If the participants are too excited or in a hurry, there is a small possibility that they fill the questionnaire patiently that would result in the data lacking of reliability, thereby affecting the consistency of collecting data. To solve this problem, use of internet-mediated questionnaires may be more effective, because of the respondents could complete the online questionnaire whenever and wherever they would like. The length of the questionnaire and the use of professional vocabulary may also are potential factors which may influence the research reliability.Advice from Bellk(2006:325), questionnaire is designed no more than two pages may contribute to increasing the quality and completeness. In addition, there are many specialized vocabulary in automotive sector, such as turbocharged and dual-rotor engine, that would confused participants. Therefore, common and usual words should be used as far as possible. According to cook and campbell(1979), the validity is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"best available approximation to the truth or falsity of a given inference, proposition or conclusionÃ¢â¬ . Firstly, The non-probability sampling will be applied in this research, due to the characteristics of this method, the non-probabilit y sampling will cause a certain threat to validity.Moreover, in the process of collecting data, there is possibility that the instrumentation may change so that influencing the results of this research. Word Count: 2278. References: Andersson, H. (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"The value of safety as revealed in the Swedish car market: an application of the hedonic pricing approachÃ¢â¬ , The Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 211-39. Baltas,G. , Saridakis,C. (2009), Brand-name effects, segment differences, and product characteristics: an integrated model of the car market, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(2),pp. 143 Ã¢â¬â-151. Belk,R. (2006), Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods. Northampton: Edward Elgar. pp. 322. Bell, J. (2010).Doing your research project, 5th edition. Berkshire: Open University Press. pp. 148-152. British Sociological Association,(2004), Statement of Ethical Practice for the Sociological Association. pp. 2-7. Bryman,A. , (2012). Social Research Method, Fourth Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press Business Dictionary, Ethical Issue, Retrieved 21 November 2012 from http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/ethical-issue. html Couton,C. , Gardes,F. And Thepaut,Y. (1996),Hedonic prices for environmental and safety characteristics and the Akerlof effect in the French car market. Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 3, pp. 435-40. Dharmaraj,C. , Sudhahar, C. J. ,(2010).Brand Preference Factors of Passenger Cars: An Empirical Assessment, Indiana University Press, The IUP Journal of Brand Management, 7(3),pp. 19-33. Golafshani,H. (2003),Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research,The Qualitative Report, 8(4). PP. 597-607. http://www. nova. edu/ssss/QR/QR8-4/golafshani. pdf Kathuria,L. M. , Singla,V. ,(2012) Purchase of Pre-Owned Small Cars in India: An Exploratory Study, The IUP Journal of Marketing Management. 11(2). pp. 63-75. Reis, H. J. , Silva,S. ,and J. M. C. (2006), Hedonic price indices for new passe nger cars in Portugal (1997-2001), Economic Modelling, Vol. 23, pp. 890-908. Randol,E. , Bucklin,S. , and Siddarth, Jorge M.Silva-Risso,(2008), Distribution Intensity and New Car Choice, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 45(3), pp. 473-496. Saunders,M. , Lewis,P. , and Thornhill,A. (2009), Research Methods for Business Students. Fifth Edition. Essex: Prentice Hall. Sousanis, and John,(2011), World Vehicle Population Tops 1 Billion Units, Wards Auto. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2012,From http://wardsauto. com/ar/world_vehicle_population_110815 Banerjee, S. (2010) ,Ã¢â¬Å"Study on Consumer Buying Behavior During Purchase of a Second CarÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Marketing & Communication ,6 (2),pp. 4-13. White, R. (2004), How people buy cars, Admap, February, pp. 15-17. White, R. (2006), Advertising cars, Admap, July/August, pp. 14-15.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
In South Asia during 1880-2005 politics gained an unusual bedfellow. Cricket was introduced to India by Great Britain for a purpose that was widely discussed. Some believed cricket brought their people together and unified different castes and cultures within India and Britain, some believed the sport was just another way for the British to rule over India and appear superior, and others criticized the religious nature present in many of the tournaments. This issue could be better understood by including an article by a British commoner who participated in the Quadrangular Tournament to make it evident that they really did want to spread religion and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t an overreaction by the Hindus or Muslims. It would also be conducive to include an article written by an Indian ruling elite who was the main source of any sort of political power or political relations with British elites so the reader can get a greater understanding of the actual role of cricket in politics and to experience if there were any conflicts over the solve issue of cricket during political debates. To begin with, there were those individuals that believed cricket was a unifying force and was purposeful in bringing everyone together to just play a sport. These people had little commentary on any relation cricket could have had to politics whether there was a huge relation or not. In document 3, an English cricketer tells how he believes cricket has a huge effect on the colonization of Britain. He says how cricket has the power to unite Ã¢â¬Å"the rulers and the ruledÃ¢â¬ and that it provides many different values to its players. In document 4, an Indian social reformer tells of a situation where a group of upper-caste cricket players allowed a low-caste player onto their Hindu team and how the sport of cricket has really played a huge role in the unification of the Indian people. Since the author of this document is a social reformer for the Indian newspaper they would want to show that they are of course doing their job as a reformer and putting out effective reforms. This could have been a type of reform that was forced on the upper-caste members to allow new members of different castes into their teams. They also wanted to show Indians that their country looked good and was respected in that they said, Ã¢â¬Å"let India cease to be the laughing stock of the whole world. Ã¢â¬ In document 5, another point of view is shown that clearly demonstrates how cricket gives a brotherly feel to those who participate even if they are of different religions. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the first leader of Pakistan and writes how Muslims should be rejoiced when winning championships of cricket. He uses absolute speech here showing he clearly has a side as to which team needs to be brotherly toward the other. Saying the Muslims will definitely win the tournament makes it evident that they are not brotherly at all and that in fact one is clearly trying to rise above the other. In document 10, a very indecisive chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board leaps back and forth between whether the cricket games should lead to war or whether it brings people together. He clearly talks of India and Pakistan as two different people and places. He also probably had to be extremely careful with his words due to the fact that this was an interview and words could be twisted. This could have been why he was jumping back and for with his opinions and had a very scattered and unclear opinion. In addition, there were those who looked at cricket as a way for British to rule over India even more and expand the cloud of influence they had over Indian affairs. In document 2, a picture and caption is shown of the Prince of India that was shown in the London newspaper. This picture depicts the Prince having a relaxing time playing cricket in a proposed visit to England, it should be taken into account that the trip has not been taken yet. The paper speaks on his behalf saying he is thrilled to be joining the English players and that the team, in turn was excited to receive him. In document 1, the Indian cricket players signed a petition and sent it to the governor of Bombay, India. The petition was asking for the Indian cricket teamÃ¢â¬â¢s fields back that were using it for polo. This was tearing up the fields and destroying them for the cricket team. Since the team contacted the governor it shows that this was a political issue and that the sport was becoming a matter of the government. It also shows that the British had dominant control on what happened on the field and that they had first pick. Since British ruled India, this was just another advantage they had over India. The author could have also been trying to make cricket look like a more important sport than polo so that they could get their field back. In document 6, an Indian Natore XI cricket club supporter writes an article for their monthly magazine. Of course, since he is writing the article for the Natore XI he is bound to speak very highly of the club and emphasize his want for them to have their equality against the English cricket teams especially during the years of 1925-1926 when tensions could have been assumed to be high in India and Britain as India was pushing for independence. Finally, Indians and Pakistanis were angered by the continued involvement of religion in the cricket games during post-independence times. In document 7, the Indian sports journal, complains about increased involvement of religion in the Quadrangular cricket tournaments. The editorial complains that religious fanaticism is resent at games and that this has disturbed the peace but at the same time, the author refers to the field as sacred bringing a religious vibe into their own writing. British and Indian religions were very different and the author could have been supporting Indian religion because their audience was mainly Hindu or Muslim and not the British religion of either Christian or Catholic. In document 8, Gandhi, an independence leader, speaks strongly of the Quadrangular tournaments and how he agrees that they should be stopped due to the religious issues. Gandhi supported peace and wanted independence for India but most likely did not want to see it be done this way. He supported the HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s and spoke of how Colleges and Institutions should be playing against each other and not religions. Gandhi does not address the political nature of cricket and tells of sportsmanship which was never really present in cricket. In document 9, a Hindu nationalist is quoted in the newspaper Muslim India and speaks of how it is not right that the Muslim Indians are not cheering for their own country but instead for Pakistanis because they are Muslim. This shows more religious involvement in the games making it evident that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not about the game of cricket but more about who it is getting ahead and what religion wins. The nationalist could be trying to encourage the Indian Muslims to have more pride for their country and be shaming them into supporting the Indians instead of the Pakistanis. In conclusion, cricket was a huge factor in politics and had many different point of views on how it impacted life in India and Britain. Some were shaken by the political and religious nature and others felt it was a great way to bring people together whether rich or poor. In all, cricket was more than just a game and greatly impacted British and Indian/Pakistani relationships.