Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Life from Above free essay sample

The first tree I ever climbed was a lamppost on Henry Street. I was small and the few trees that lined those Brooklyn streets were too wide for me to wrap my arms around. I shimmied up to the top and held myself there, arms shaking and mouth gaping at all that I could see. The streets looked so wide and my mother so small as she begged me to come down. From then on, I climbed ceaselessly. I never swung on the swing sets, but rather worked my way up their black poles and observed the playground from above. My childhood passed in a jungle of urban treetops from which I observed life below, birds above, and relished the freedom of being surrounded by nothing but air. Eventually I grew too old to climb the lampposts and trees of my neighborhood, but in many ways I remained living among those concrete treetops. We will write a custom essay sample on Life from Above or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I often felt that my childhood was spent observing, from a height, what other children did. My mother, an eccentric to say the least, built our home in an industrial loft where nearly every surface was a canvas. Only the kitchen table was not to be defiled, though even it had a poem or two etched into its surface. It was our treehouse. In it, life was an adventure. School for us meant the perusal of our dreams as they appeared to us that day. On the days I wanted to be a writer, I spent my time around the house poring over John Keats, tussling with Homer. On days when I wanted to be a doctor, I donned my lab coat and plucked my sisters splinters. I never had mathematician days. The entirety of the world was in my palms, and I eagerly grasped it. From our height we watched the happenings far below: children boarding school buses, block parties we didnt attend, and holidays we never celebrated. As glorious as life in the treehouse was, it was not without thunderstorms, booming with the sound of arguing parents. It was not without earthquakes when late child support and unpaid bills threatened to destroy our home. It was not without the heavy rainstorms of a sadness I couldnt understand. However ravaged we were by the weather of life, we were free. But no treehouse can withstand a man with a chainsaw. Through the roaring zip of the saw, we watched our treehouse come crashing down, and I felt the ground for the first time. The ground then manifested itself as School. I donned a uniform, got a nickname, and started doing math when I was told. Like a sailor at sea for months, I found that the ground was unfriendly to me. My lungs ached as they adjusted to the strange new altitude. I often found myself out of breath, gasping for some shred of familiarity. Now my feet have adjusted, and my lungs have adapted. But even as I make my way across the ground, I carry with me what I learned in the trees, and I wonder if there is another destiny for those who crave life from above, or those who are tired of running out of breath down here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Analysis of Organisational Culture at Google The WritePass Journal

Analysis of Organisational Culture at Google 1.Introduction Analysis of Organisational Culture at Google 1.Introduction2. Organizational Background3. Analysis3.1 Data collection3.2 Theories applied4. ParadigmOrganizational Perception Interpretation4.1 Burrell Morgan’s Sociological Paradigms Sociological Paradigms 4.2 Definition of Organizational Culture with Google culture4.3 Evaluation of Google organizational culture on the Cultural Dimension Theory4.3.1- Power Distance4.3.2 -Individualism4.3.3 -Masculinity 4.3.4 -Uncertainty Avoidance Index4.3.5 -Long term orientation5. Evaluation of Google organizational culture on Edgar Schein’s Three levels of Culture5.1 Artifacts:5.2 Espoused Values:5.3 Basic Assumptions and Values:6. Criticisms 6.1 Cultural dimension theory:6.2 Sociological Paradigm: Conclusion ReferencesRelated 1.Introduction Analyzing an organization is no more than studying first its genesis its mottos and beliefs and the future it holds for the society that it resides in. For most companies, an organization is neither a science nor an art; it’s an oxymoron. It is not a result from systematic, methodical planning but, shaped more by politics than by policies. However, perceiving an organization from a critical point of view would overshadow all the development and technology that many organizations have contributed to our society. In the words of Walt Disney co-founder of the Walt Disney Company states that â€Å"Whatever we accomplish is due to the combined effort. The organization must be with you or you dont get it done In my organization there is respect for every individual, and we all have a keen respect for the public†. The author has chosen to talk about the Google culture from an Interpretivism perspective as she worked as an Ad Words Representative for the organisation. 2. Organizational Background Google Inc an American public corporation earns its proceeds primarily from its advertising which is related to its Internet search, e-mail, online mapping, office productivity, social networking, and video sharing. Google is not a conventional company and with no intention to become one either. Throughout Google’s evolution as a privately held company they have always done it differently, where the emphasis is laid on the creativity and challenge of its people which has resulted in providing unbiased, accurate and free access information for its users. The genesis of this organization begins with its co- founders Larry Page and Sergey Bin alumni of Stanford University where it was incorporated as a privately held organization on September 4, 1998 and then was moved to public ownership on August 19th 2004. The organization is globally spread across starting from the Head office in Mountain View California, with some of its subsidiaries being India, United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, South Africa, etc. With approximately 20,000 employees working for this organization it has been voted by Fortune Magazine as ‘The Best Company’ to work for the second time in February 2008. 3. Analysis 3.1 Data collection The analysis of the organization is done with respect to the Indian subsidiary that is geographically located in the south of India- Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.   The author worked as an As Words representative for the organization. The data collection for this analysis is based on a subjective and objective perspective, the subjective data being the author’s observations, perceptions and experiences, and the objective being that which is communicated and believed within the organization over the years. The author relates the analyses to the one year work experience, work relationships, work climate and culture, training and evaluation methods which was gained and undergone at the organization. The author also takes into count the strength of the workforce and the significant department in concern in which the author was a count for and worked for. The strength of the workforce noted to be an exact number of a 1000 employees for the year 2007- 2008 who worked for this subsidi ary handling the Online Sales Operation for Asia Pacific, with Ad Words being the main revenue generating product other than that of Ad Sense. 3.2 Theories applied The analysis of the organization has been done on the transformational factor, Organizational culture, with a correlation to that of the author’s paradigm on Burrell Morgan’s Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis, Heinemann, 1979 . Geert Hofstede’s ‘Cultural dimensions theory’ has been used as the main model of analysis, however, to move beyond the national culture dimension and towards the organizations levels of culture Edgar Schein’s ‘Three levels of culture’ has also been applied. Burrell Morgan’s Sociological Paradigms gives an outlook of the author’s quadrant of perception on the company. Furthermore, the focus of study is from a radical humanistic point of view, the author falls under this paradigm believing that change begins with individual. The below given study also covers the founders view of organizational culture which is supported by the interview with Fortune Magazine. 4. Paradigm Organizational Perception Interpretation 4.1 Burrell Morgan’s Sociological Paradigms Understanding that the paper necessitates a more focused and specific analysis Burrell Morgan’s Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis, Heinemann, 1979 paradigms has been applied as this synchronic model makes sense, which it places to time dimension on the study and understanding of organizations. It can be comprehended that a paradigm is a lens through which we perceive the world, each lens giving their own meaning and assumptions about the nature of the world and the way it is ought to be made sense of.   There are many different lenses, which exist for viewing and understanding the world, and what follows will be a necessary simplification of a complex and constantly shifting set of boundaries that define the current paradigms (Penny cook, A. 2001). Explaining Burrell Morgan’s Theory it is developed by a 22 matrix scheme to help classify and understand existing sociological theories based on four major paradigms. The matrix was structured based on th e four main debates in sociology, which was then further consolidated into two fundamental issues that form the axis of the 22 matrix. Sociological Paradigms Functionalist Paradigm (objective regulation): Individuals in this paradigm rest upon the premise that society has a real concrete existence and a systematic character and is directed toward the production of order and regulation. The social science enterprise is believed to be objective and value-free. This paradigm possess a pragmatic orientation, it is concerned with understanding society in a way that produces useful, usable knowledge. (Craig Paul, 1991) Interpretive Paradigm (subjective regulation): From this perspective, social reality, although possessing order and regulation, never realizes an external concrete form. Instead it is the product of inter-subjective experience. The goal of this paradigm is of developing a purely ‘objective’ social science is a specious one. (Craig Paul, 1991) Radical Humanist Paradigm (subjective radical change). The perception in this paradigm shares its assumptions with that of the interpretive paradigm that everyday reality is socially constructed and maintained. Theorists in this paradigm are mainly concerned with releasing social constraints that limit human potential. They see the current dominant ideologies as separating people from their true selves. (Craig Paul, 1991) Radical Structuralist Paradigm (Objective Radical change): This paradigm believes that social reality is considered to be largely independent of the way it is socially constructed. It has an external existence of its own. The social world is featured by intrinsic tensions and contradictions; these forces serve to bring about radical change in the social system as a whole (Craig Paul, 1991). The paradigms correspond to theories of organizations, that which coexists symbolizing and expressing confirming and contradictory views about what and organization is and what it is ought to be and how could we go about acquiring such knowledge. Figure 1 Sociological Paradigms After having being administered the Sociological Paradigm questionnaire, the author’s paradigm was established as being on the Interpretivist Paradigm of the Quadrant. Although, a radical humanist may share the assumption that everyday reality is socially constructed and maintained with that of the interpretive paradigm, this social construction is tied to’ pathology of consciousness’, a situation in which the author finds herself a prisoner of the social world that she creates (Craig Paul, 1991). However, as well said by David Collins (1996), understanding the person’s paradigm from a questionnaire cannot give the person the right view of which paradigm we fall in as its just simple exercise and the reader understanding and mood at that point of brings a big impact on the way the reader answers the question. Therefore, though this evaluation may give the authors paradigm further scrutiny on various occasions would help confirm the evaluation. 4.2 Definition of Organizational Culture with Google culture Louis, (1980) defines culture as an understanding or meanings shared by a group of people. Similarly Edgar Schein goes a little further and explains organizational culture as â€Å"apattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems† (Schein.   H,1997) Although, the shared cognition or beliefs may seem the simplest understanding of organizational culture, it also interprets a team effort and the significance of sharing the same views and progressing that belief or perception but not regressing. Google also maintains its organizational culture on the simple terms of futuristic and selfless thought which is to be shared and followed, as rightly put across by one of its founders Sergey Brin â€Å"I actually don’t think keeping the culture is a goal. I think improving the culture is†. (Adam. L, 2008) Furthermore, as described by Google’s Chief culture officer Stacy Savides Sullivan â€Å"I would characterize the culture as one that is team-oriented, very collaborative and encouraging people to think non-traditionally, different from where they ever worked beforeworking with integrity and for the good of the company and for the good of the world, which is tied to our overall mission of making information accessible to the world† (Elinor, M. 2007) Following the strategies of the global market Google understands that the organizational culture should be modified with accordance to the national culture making it one among the best in the industry. Which increasing globalization, performance and values of the employees aligned with the company’s strategy and manipulate culture to achieve the organizational objective according to (Ogbonna and Harris, 2002). 4.3 Evaluation of Google organizational culture on the Cultural Dimension Theory Noting that the analysis is done on Google’s Indian subsidiary, there is no appropriate theory than that of the cultural dimension theory, judging that the theory was structured to observe the interactions between the national culture and the organizational culture. Geert Hofstede study demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviour of societies and organizations, and that are very persistent across time. Applying the skills of an ‘Interpretivist paradigm’ and comprehending and analyzing the organization an evaluation has been done on the five dimensions of the theory. The five dimensions being power distance, Individualism and collectivism, Masculinity and feminity and uncertainty avoidance Hofstede. G, (1997). Figure 2. Cultural Dimensions of India PDI Power distance, IDV Individualism, MAS Masculinity, UAI Uncertainty avoidance index, LTO Long-term orientation. 4.3.1- Power Distance On this dimension there is an insignificant distribution of power distance between the superiors and subordinates of the organization. The distance, which is even brought to notice, can be accounted for because of the employee’s job profiles or experience within the organization and not because of the kind of inequality brought among the employee relationship. Bringing to notice Hofstede’s dimensions for culture in India on the dimension of Power distance India ranks 77 as compared to the world on an average of 56.5 Hofstede.G, (1997), Google India Pvt. ltd seemed distant from this dimensional score. On reflection, the author recollects that even though the work experience in the organization was the first of her professional life, her start at the organization did not give her a distant feeling. The right of expression and freedom of thought and creativity was encouraged in the organization. Employees are supported, in addition to their regular projects, to spend 20% o f their time working in what they think will most benefit the Organization. The organization believes that many of their significant advances have happened in this manner for example, Adsense and Orkut. Additionally, the company falls under the flat organization structure, emphasizing on the importance of nooglers (new employees) taking up team responsibilities and thereby creating a sense of belonging. Furthermore, to remove the distribution of power distance the company believes in transparency of information from the CEO Eric Schmidt sharing information with that of a junior most employee such as that of an Ad Words Representative. Portals are constantly created for employees to voice their opinion and come up with solutions and ideas for existing and futuristic problems. Though, the organization being based nationally in that of India the organizational culture has not been influenced as yet by the national culture. 4.3.2 -Individualism Hofstede.G, (1997) stated that management in an individualist society is management of individuals. Subordinates can usually be moved around individually; if incentives or bonuses are given, these should be linked to an individual’s performance. Understanding that Individualism is appreciated with a stress on collective effort or team work, recruiters are always on the search of such employees who can maintain their individualism as well as perform collectively as a team. The organization encourages and motivates collective and team work, for which the appraisal is given on an Individual performance. Individualism holds that the individual is the primary unit of reality and the ultimate standard of value. This view does not deny that societies exist or that people benefit from living in them, but it sees society as a collection of individuals, not something over and above them. The organization is concerned about its employees well being and gives every opportunity to learn best practices through teams. Team meeting and inter team events are highly supported and are undertaken with a serious candor. In addition it promotes other employee clubs funding Googler network, Google Women Engineers and the Glbt- Gay, Lesbian, bisexual and transgender googler. Google being an American based organization with an Indian investment there is no difference on this dimension. 4.3.3 -Masculinity Defining the value placed on traditionally male or female value systems this dimension evaluates as to whether the organization gives importance to competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition and accumulation of wealth characteristics of the masculine culture or emphasis on relationships, and quality of life which represents that of the feminine culture.   As explained by Hofstede, G. (1997) masculinity and femininity when comparing the culture prevailing in one organization can be analyzed in he view of values in the organization. Morgan (1986:54) talks about modelling the behaviours implied in the values statement ‘The modelling of appropriate behaviour must occur at each level of the organization result in employees being modelled in these same behaviours.’ Looking at the Google culture it can be roughly said that the organization promotes a masculine value system in the organization because of the benefits it provides to its employees. Benefits such as, along with the basic salary a quarterly bonus and a company an annual bonus in the month of December, furthermore, transportation and food requirements which I provided with no charge and in abundance, health facilities as a gym and a spa along with a medical check up and medical coverage of Rs.5, 00,000 Indian currency on the employees and their immediate dependants. Additionally, day care centres for working parents and quarterly outings and entertainment (called movie nights) are held along with a total support to adventure, book and drama clubs, also, employees are given a discount in the most affluent stores and restaurants in the city. However, this may seem as a totally dominating masculine culture the founders of the Organization have not forgotten their corporate social responsibility and also believe in encouraging the feminine culture within the organization. The most significant commandment of the organization ‘Don’t be Evil’ this belief relies on the fact that com pany ought to do good for the world even if it has to forego some short term gains. Moreover, as users believe in their systems it is their duty to provide and unbiased and objective service. In addition to this it promotes the concept of team development and peer feedback to better the level of employee relationship within the organization. From a radical humanist paradigm though this may seem a balanced organizational culture it seems to be a strategy for the company to get hold of the employees from moving to different organization. 4.3.4 -Uncertainty Avoidance Index This dimension reflects the level of anxiety of the organization that is the extent up to which the organization attempts to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. Cultures that scored high in uncertainty avoidance prefer guidelines and structured circumstances, and the employee’s tenure in the company is longer. As expressed by Hofstede, G. (1997) â€Å"Laws and rules are ways in which a society tries to prevent uncertainties in the behaviour of people.† However, with regards to the organization there is awareness that business environment changes rapidly hence there is no hesitation to take high risk. The organization believes in funding projects that have 10% chance of earning a billion dollars over the long term as in the past pursuit of such projects have resulted in long term success. Although it cannot be quantified the specific level of risk that the organization is willing to undertake, as the ratio of reward to risk increases, the organization is ready t o accept projects further outside the current businesses, if the initial investment is small relative to the level of investment in our current businesses. To evaluate this as a high or low level of uncertainty avoidance is difficult to tell as it seems but natural that most organizations would definitely keep this as an ideal margin. Furthermore, the organization prides itself on doing business with and selling its products on policies and guidelines. With respect to policies and rules outside the business scenario for the employees it can be said that the regulations are minimum that which is in the best interest of the employee example ID badges, and transportation checks for the security of the employees. As clearly seen from the above graph India among all cultural dimension uncertainty avoidance is the lowest where it is always people likes or has a habit of breaking rules with regards to the organization it can be said there are no rules to be broken in the first place. Howev er, if minor offenses are committed employees are aware and are mindful of the fact that time is money and in time serious offenses can cost them their employment. As Brown(1998) states that rules and regulations of an organization bonds to have a good ethics in the work place and not which impose emotional stress on the behaviour of employees in the organization. Nonetheless, the rules and regulations in Google understand the freedom of the employees with knowledge of the importance of the national culture of the location of the organization. 4.3.5 -Long term orientation This dimension describes the time horizon, the long term or short-term vision of the individual. Hofstede.G, (1997) explains this new dimension of long term orientation verses the short term orientation can be analyzed related to the job security and the long term vision of the employee in the organization with respect to growth in an organization. Google determines that employees within the organization are happy with their current job. They have an added advantage of requesting the manager to give a work experience in different projects. Employees are moved to different project where Google aims to use employee rather than firing them, this shows that Google cares about its employees. The organization believes that business decisions will be made with the long-term welfare of the company and with share holders in mind and not based on accounting considerations. Therefore it can be stated that Google has a long-term oriented culture with respect to seeing the future of its employees . 5. Evaluation of Google organizational culture on Edgar Schein’s Three levels of Culture To understand the organization the best way to do it would be understanding the culture. Schein divides organizational culture into three levels: 5.1 Artifacts: This is being the most surface level of the organization example being the dress code in the company. 5.2 Espoused Values: Just below the level of the artifacts this level consists of the conscious strategies, goals and philosophies 5.3 Basic Assumptions and Values: the last lever is the core or essence of culture which is represented by the basic underlying assumptions and values, which are difficult to discern becausethey exist at a largely unconscious level. Figure 3. Schein’s Three levels of Culture Figure 4. Google’s Three levels of Organizational Culture 6. Criticisms Although the above models have been applied to help analyze the organizational culture, like any other theory they have their shortcomings. 6.1 Cultural dimension theory: Schwartz, (1992) argues that Hofstede’s survey based on one organization (IBM) in his view of culture in an organization; one cannot conclude that culture in all organization in that country practice the same. Furthermore, Brown (1998) criticizes Hofstede’s claims that he identified multiple national cultures or differences between such cultures, challenging his research approach. Brown also questions whether national culture dimensions uniform national actions and institutions agree with brown as a challenging environment in the present world organizations are challenging culture of work irrespective of the national culture. Finally, McSweeney, Brendan (January 2002) states Hofstedes work has not just also been criticized because he seems to identify cultures with nations based on the supposition that within each nation there is a uniform national culture. Other types of cultures are acknowledged to exist but allowed little, if any influence. 6.2 Sociological Paradigm: Though the sociological paradigm has been a well-accepted theory in Organizational management its acceptance within the social sciences have done so with little regard to the model’s internal consistency. Pinder and Bourgeoise (1982) state that Burrell and Morgan’s application of ontology has been misplaced. In addition, another fundamental issue is that whether the intra paradigm perspectives adhere to similar images of the subject matter. Hence, like most significant theories every shortcoming gives thought for future theories. Conclusion In conclusion the task has been challenging and educative for the author in comprehending the structure and culture of an organization though in many instances the observations could be in many aspects be influenced as an employee or my inadequacies of being a good observer to have noticed any kind of pro’s within the organization. However, my opinion on Google have changed understanding the difference of culture in an organization challenging the national culture in certain areas and understanding the cultural practice comparing other organization in different parts of the world. The author being in the quadrant of the Interpretivist Paradigm identifies with the organization being a merge of care and value systems. References Adam Lashinky(January 29, 2008) ‘Google wins again’. From the link Retrieved on 29th July 2009. Brown, A (1998) Organisational Culture, London, Financial Times. Burrell, G., Morgan, G(1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis:Heinemann, pp. 1-37 Collins, D. (1996) New Paradigms for Change: Theories of Organisation and the Organisation of Theories. Journal of organisational change management, Vol. 9 No. 4 pp9-23 Craig, S., Paul, D. (1991). The Management research handbook. London: Routledge, 318, pp. 24-38.. Elinor Mills (April 17, 2007)’ Meet Googles culture czar’ from the link Retrieved on 1st August 2009. Hofstede, Geert. (1997) Culture and Organisations: Software of the Mind, Newyork, Mcgraw Hill. Louis, M.R (1997) Organizations as culture. McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstedes Model Of National Cultural Differences And Their Consequences:A Triumph Of Faith- A Failure Of Analysis. Human Relations , 89-118. Mills, E. (2007, April 27). Retrieved 07 21, 2009, from Meet Googles culture czar: Mintzberg, H(1983). Structure in Fives Designing Effective Organizations:Prentice Hall Inc. Ogbonna, E. Harris, L.C.(2002), Organizational Culture: A ten year, two phase study of change in the UK food retailing sector. Journal of Management studies, 39 (5), Culture pp. 673-706. Penny cook, A. (2001) Critical applied linguistics : a critical introduction. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., 2001. Schein, E. (1997, October). Organizational Culture Leadership . Retrieved 07 21, 2009, from Schein’s model, M (1987). Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.Yu, E. S. K., Mylopoulos, J(1994). From E-R to â€Å"A-R† Modelling strategic actor relationships for business process reengineering. Manchester; 13-th Int. Conf. on the Entity-relationship Approach.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 18

Case Study Example nt of employees will be done purely on the basis of merit and the management skills in case of leadership positions.For the role of supervisors, the fittest candidate would be one who has the technical knowledge to guide the team as well as have good interpersonal communication skills for managing the people at work.Instead of a one-day training program, the new policy has the provisions of conducting a three day induction program that provides a detailed insight of the work and initial introduction with the existing employees. The company aims to return value to their employees who are willing to add value to the organization. The company believes in providing the best remuneration package in the industry as per the best standards (Armstrong 2006). This is done through competitive fixation of wages for the employees. Apart from the compensation packages, there are several allowances and perquisites that are offered to the employees.The company also believes in providing health benef its and taking care of the medical needs of the employees and their families. The company believes in equal and fair opportunities for both men and women at workplace. The new policy proposes that women should have equal representations as compared to men in the role of supervisors. This would also create fair and transparent communication practices in the workplace. The senior employees and the managers would engage into period communication and take feedbacks from the operational staffs in the process. This would ensure total involvement of the employees and reduce the chances of any communication gap in the process.The company disapproves the collective bargaining agreement between the employees and the union. The following suggestion for improvement could be provided to the human resource manager of FVI as the past recruitments have resulted in a failure rate of 40% amongst the number of candidates who were recruited. In the past, the supervisors were selected on the basis of their

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Analysis paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Analysis paper - Essay Example reations inspired by phenomenal aspects related to human emotions and cognition to serve its function, and developed from one or multiple of art elements. Production of art utilises different components. Artists produce different effects using elements such as colour, textures, shapes, lines, dimension and space. The ability to use lines of diverse lengths and thicknesses and taking a particular direction tend to signal an action that perhaps other elements cannot produce. Colour has got critical purpose in producing effects whether used alone or in structures produced using other elements as shapes. It benefits the art through the hue, its intensity in brightness or dullness and value in terms of lightness or darkness. By joining lines together, flat shapes, either geometric or irregular forms can be created to express drawings. Art can arise from use of 3-dimentional objects that allow the artists to control their appearance. Such structures are expressed through length, width and height. Texture gives the feel of an art (e.g. rough or smooth) and allows viewers to relate with it as they do in reality. Art can also be produced under the illusion of space. Art productions grow with time and are inspired by certain happenings in particular moments. Some art pieces were created several centuries ago, but have been recreated severally which all show certain divergence in appearance, finishing and aesthetic quality. Art has proved not to be limited by time. Hence an art piece can best be described in the time it was developed. It has transformed from the stone-age art when expressions were mere carvings and sculpts on the walls and stones. Then came the clay works, but today they have expanded to the computer aided graphics. It’s not merely about a tangible piece, but more of feel as in choreography and music. Art has come to encompass great dynamism and complexities through use of advanced technology to incorporate motions and different visual impressions that

Sunday, November 17, 2019

US CEO's pay Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

US CEO's pay - Essay Example Since the mid-1970’s, for roughly 40 years, the pay of top executives rose at a modest rate. However, executive compensation started shooting up tremendously in 1980 and this pace even accelerated in 1990’s. Notwithstanding dipping in the stock in the early 2000’s, the CEO’s, the CEO’s package has continued shooting higher. An average CEO of a large company in the US earned around 24 times the compensation of a typical worker. (Jacob and Paul, 2010) In the mid-1980’s, at the time of the economic boom, US executives were being paid the most lucrative salaries in history and this continued even during recession in 1990’s. This was perceived as unfair to both laid off employees and stockholders. ( Up to 2003, the American Chief Executives average compensation rose by a factor of about six in America’s top five hundred companies. Their average pay reached around eleven million per year inclusive of the value of the options. This is not comparable to CEO’s pay in any country. For example, Swedish Chief Executives received roughly a quarter of their American counter parts. In 2007, the CEO’s pay accelerated towards three hundred times that of a typical worker. Executives of top companies made more than twelve million US dollar in that year. (Tyler, 2006) Scholars Xavier Gabaix of Massachussetts University and Augistin Landier of the stern school of business argue that American executives are not overpaid. They suggest that increase in the value of stock market largely explains the high packages of Chief Executive officers. This argument is simple. It suggests that more economic value is created by better executive decisions. If the number of good executives is less than the number of big companies, the value of the executive talent will be pushed up by competitive bidding. Thus, the value of Chief executive officers compensation packages results from competitive

Friday, November 15, 2019

Islamic Art in the Western World | Essay

Islamic Art in the Western World | Essay Is there a place for Islamic Art in the western Domicile? Introduction: What is Islamic Art? Islamic art does not copy nature but conveys what it represents. Islamic art is a mirror of a culture and its world view. Islamic art is a vibrant and distinctive form of Art. Unlike Christian art, Islamic art is not constrained to religious work, but includes artistic traditions in the Muslim culture. Because of the strict ruling against drawings of human or animals which might result in idol worship, Islamic art developed a distinctive character makes use of primary forms, geometric arabesque, floral and calligraphic. Muslim art has reflected this balanced, harmonious world view. Through its brilliant use of colour and balance, Islamic art creates an immediate visual impact. In Islamic art, painting and sculpture are not thought of as the finest forms of art. Crafts and decorative arts are regarded as having full art status. Books, on the other hand are a major art form and Writing has a high status in Islam as writing is considered significant decoration for objects and buildings. Islamic Art seeks to illustrate the meaning and essence of things, rather than just their physical form. It focuses on the spiritual representation of objects and beings and not their physical qualities. How is geometry seen to be spiritual? Because circles have no end they are infinite and so they remind Muslims that Allah is infinite. Complex geometric designs create the feeling of un-ending repetition; this helps the person get an idea of the infinite nature of Allah. Repeating patterns also indicate that in the small you can find the infinite, a single element of the pattern implies the infinite total. The use of patterns is part of the way Islamic art represents nature and objects. Repeated geometric pattern often use plant motifs, there are called Arabesque. Arabic lettering is also common. Art: It is one of the purest and most significant forms of human communication. Where language often fails us, art can cross divide what we sometimes erect due to differences in race, ethnicity, religion and culture. Specifically, Islamic art, perhaps more than any other, presents a beautiful mirror of a culture and its world view. More than being just representative of a singular religion (as is often the case with Christian art), Islamic art deepens understanding about Muslim culture, at large. It is for this reason that Islamic art should not only be tolerated when found in a western domicile, it should be encouraged and celebrated as a mechanism for the west to build a new respectful, productive and healing relationship with the East. On September 11, 2001, the west was devastated by a series of coordinated suicide terrorists attacks organized by an Islamist fundamentalist group called Al- Qaida. After getting over the initial shock, pain and horror of this incalculable loss, the west was left with one profound sentiment absolute confusion. We, in the West, simply had little understanding, not only of the motivation for the terrorist attack, but also of Islamic beliefs systems and principles, in general. And it is not a criticism, but simply an observation to note that the profoundly individualist mindset of the West, particularly America, had left us very isolated and without much understanding of global, philosophical, religious and cultural principles which differed from ours. It is now almost a decade after the horror of September 11, 2001, and although the West is still much insulated and lacks the full understanding of Islam which is so critical to secure a more peaceful global environment, we have made significant strides. The attack was not only a source of great suffering in the West, but also a wake up call to remind us of our insularity and the fact that there is a huge global community out there of which we are only a small part. And, Islamic artists have made huge contributions to furthering the understanding of Islamic culture and religion. Some may view bringing Islamic art into ones home as inviting argument and conflict. Narrow minded people may view Islam as the enemy of the West. However more and more Westerners are coming to the understanding that Islam is not the enemy of the West, but rather a potential partner and friend. Art has been a powerful tool in aiding the West to come to this conclusion. Through art of all varieties, Westerners are able to learn about not only the Islamic which may differ from many of ours, but also about the areas where we have something in common. There are so many contemporary Islamic arts and ways to incorporate it in to a Western home. Of course, the immediate thought one has when the word ‘art is mentioned, is probably visual art. Painters like Ali Omar Ermes, an Islamic artist based in the United Kingdom, introduce Western eyes to the beauty of Arabic lettering. Ermes work is significant in its exploration of the beauty of the written word or symbol. Writing, in the Islamic tradition, is highly regarded for its aesthetic beauty, and often utilized in architecture for its decorative effects, in addition to its simple meaning. Noura Sadaka, a Dubai-based talent, paints, draws and creates unique wooden and metal sculptures through which she tries to communicate the many ambiguities and struggles of being a woman caught between both Western and Islamic identities. Noura is typical of many contemporary Arabic artists in this way. So many Islamic creators have shed new understanding about the ways in which many of the Isl amic community feel great ties, love and respect for their peers in the West. Contrary to initial beliefs about Islam being the Wests enemy, such artists bring to light a much more complex and subtle truth about the relationship between Islamic peoples and their Western counterparts. Visual art is definitely not the only way to bring Islamic creativity into ones abode. We may not normally think of magazines, television and the internet as sources of fine art so often it is full of mindless content that could not be qualified as creative, by any stretch of the imagination. However, television shows like PBSs ART: 21, magazines like Brown Book and a variety of modern websites are exposing the West to Islamic artists whose work not only delights the senses; it also educates and helps expound understanding. Even the HBO series, Def Poetry Jam, did much to change stereotypes of Islam, by showcasing young, Islamic slam poets, especially in the early years which followed the terrorist attacks. It is clear that Islamic art has an essential function in furthering human understanding and connection. It is a bridge to create a dialogue when the traditional means are inadequate to express the subtle complexity of thoughts, emotions and ideas which drive us. By exploring the meaning an essence of things beyond their physical form, Islamic artists communicate sometimes unique, sometimes universal ideas about the spiritual questions with which all human beings grapple, regardless of their particular faith. For these reasons and more, Islamic art can hold a vital place in the context of a Western home expanding dialogue and understanding and, ultimately, promoting more peace and tolerance.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Essay example --

Interdisciplinary Research Question What are the impacts of mainstreaming ESE students into a general education classroom? The problem most viewed with mainstreaming special education and general education students is that student’s individual needs are sometimes being overlooked. Justification of Interdisciplinary Approach In order to justify my interdisciplinary approach I will show how drawing from the relevant disciplines I have chosen offers different views and perspectives presenting diverse explanations to the problem. Relevant Disciplines Education – accommodations, modifications, training of instructors Sociology – socialization, acceptance, understanding, respect Psychology – self esteem, belonging Analysis of Problem with Evaluation of Insights The insights addressed are the preconceptions of instruction, socialization and behavior issues of mainstreaming ESE students. It is assumed that socialization and behavior can play a positive role with inclusion by offering students a chance to improve their socialization and behaviors skills while breaking down the social stigma of being different. However, this can also have a negative effect on students. By not presenting ESE students with the proper monitoring when socialization and behavior is involved can lead to embarrassment and alienation of peers. It is believed that inclusion can affect all students because instructional needs aren’t being met. With accommodations having to be put in place teachers are spending more time with ESE students and offering less challenging instruction to the general education students. Conflicts Between Disciplines The conflict is whether socialization and behavior play an intricate part in the educational needs of the ESE s... ...ght out, and if the decision is to mainstream the student then it should be decided whether the student will benefit from full or partial inclusion. If they are mainstreamed then they will need to be carefully monitored and ensure that all of their needs are met in order to be successful in the general education setting. The pros and cons of inclusion will need to be looked over repeatedly to be sure that the plan is working in the best interest of the student and does not affect the academic goals of either the special needs student or the general education student. As more and more students with special needs are placed into general education classrooms the general idea is that this is the best placement for them based on their needs. However, in order to make this successful the students, parents, and teachers involved will have to work hard and work together.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Commercial One: Old Spice †the Man Your Man Could Smell Like

HUMAN 2C03 Assignment One Commercial One: Old Spice – The Man Your Man Could Smell Like Summary: Old Spice, a male specific hygiene company, released the television advertising campaign â€Å"The Man Your Man Could Smell Like† during the Super bowl in February of 2010. The focus of the advertisement is aimed at females to buy their new line of body wash for their male partner who would ultimately smell like the model in the commercial. The commercial has numerous settings that the actor transitions between which contribute to the overall humor of the ad.Furthermore, the ad questions the masculinity of those who do not use the â€Å"Old Spice† body wash and how every man has the potential to be like the model in the commercial. Noise: Like most commercials, the advertisement contained a lot of sounds and images that only made the product look appearing to consumers. One example of a visual flag is of the model is holding two tickets to a show which turn in into di amonds. The significance of this in the commercial is to plant the idea of prosperity in the mind of the consumer. It may also imply that this new body wash makes you smell like a million dollars.An example of an auditory flag is of the beach and sea. This sound of waves crashing against the sand helps put the viewer in a peaceful state while watching the ad. It also gives the consumer a feeling of desire to live the life of the model in the commercial, which is a powerful marketing technique. Standardizing the Argument: Premise 1: Ladies, your man is not I (the model). Premise 2: But, if he stopped using ladies scented body was and switched to Old Spice, he could smell like he’s me. Conclusion: Anything is possible when your man smells like Old Spice and not a lady. Conclusion: Buy Old Spice body wash. Evaluation of Argument:

Friday, November 8, 2019

A Better Chance Helps Students of Color Attend Top Schools

'A Better Chance' Helps Students of Color Attend Top Schools The scholarship organization A Better Chance (ABC), founded in 1963, has provided many students of color with the chance to attend college-prep private schools and public schools across the country. Their mission clearly illustrates the goal of the organization: Our mission is to  increase substantially  the number of well-educated young people of color who are capable of assuming positions of responsibility and leadership in American society.  Since its founding, ABC has grown greatly, first starting out with 55 students enrolled at nine schools to now more than 2,000 students enrolled at nearly 350 of the best private schools and public schools, as of the 2015-2016 school year (ABCs website has not been updated since we initially reported this statistic in July 2016).   United States President Lyndon Johnson meets with African American and white political figures from New Jersey, discussing aspects of his War on Poverty legislation. Afro Newspaper/Gado  /  Getty Images A Brief History   Originally, the program involved identifying and selecting talented students of color and providing  scholarships  for them to attend  private day  and  boarding schools. In the first year, even before  President Lyndon B. Johnson  announced his War on Poverty, 55 boys, all poor and mostly African-American, took part in an academically rigorous summer program. If they completed the program, the  headmasters of  16  private  schools agreed to accept them. In the 1970s, the program began to send students to competitive public high schools in areas such as New Canaan and  Westport, Connecticut; and  Amherst, Massachusetts. Students lived in a house staffed  by program tutors  and administrators, and the local community provided support for their house. In addition, many  colleges across the country, from Stanford in California to Colgate in New York state, have partnered with ABC to express their interest in promoting diversity. Racial Diversity   The current program is focused on increasing diversity at educational institutions.  While the majority of students enrolled are African-American, today the program also includes a wide range of diverse students. In addition to racial diversity, ABC also has increased its assistance for students of varying economic backgrounds, helping not only students who have significant financial constraints, but also middle-class students. The program offers to subsidize tuition for these students based on demonstrated financial need.   ABC notes that its scholars are a racially diverse group (figures approximate):   67% are African-American16% Latino7% Asian American1% Native American9% multi-racial or other Tracy Chapman. Chris Carroll/Getty Images   A Strong Alumni Base As a result of their dedication to making a quality education possible for students of color,  ABC can boast an alumni base of tens of thousands of individuals who are active in many fields.  According to President Sandra E. Timmons, there are over 13,000 alumni and alumnae of this program, and many are influential in the fields of business, government, education, the arts, and other areas. The organization includes among its famous alumni  Governor of Massachusetts  Deval Patrick, who was raised on the South Side of Chicago by a single mother. One of his middle school teachers recognized his talent, and Mr. Patrick was able to attend Milton Academy, a boarding school in Massachusetts, on a scholarship. He later went on to attend Harvard College and Harvard Law School before becoming governor of Massachusetts. Another notable ABC alumna is  singer/songwriter Tracy Chapman,  who was born in Cleveland, Ohio, and attended the Wooster School in Connecticut on a scholarship. The Wooster School is a private co-ed pre-K through 12  school. After she graduated from the Wooster School in 1982, Ms. Chapman went on to  Tufts University  near Boston, where she majored in African Studies and Anthropology. She also started to perform at local venues, and she was discovered by a classmate whose father helped her get her first recording contract, though she insisted on graduating from college first. She is famous for singles such as  Fast Car  and  Give  Me One Reason. Program Requirements and Fees The College Preparatory Schools Program (CPSP) of ABC works to identify, recruit, place and support deserving students of color in college prep middle and high schools. Students applying to ABC must currently be in grades 4-9 and be citizens or permanent residents of the United States. Students must also be academically strong, maintaining an overall average of a B or better and rank within the top 10% of their class. They should also participate in after-school activities, demonstrate leadership potential, and have good character. They must also receive strong teacher recommendations. Interested applicants must submit an inquiry online and later create an application, as well as write an essay,  ask for letters of recommendation, and be interviewed. Member schools may require additional steps as part of the overall application process, such as standardized testing or additional interviews. Acceptance at ABC does not guarantee admission at a member school. Participation in ABC is without cost, and the organization offers fee waivers for its scholars to take the SSAT and to apply for financial aid. Member schools do charge tuition, but all offer financial aid which is usually based on a familys personal financial situation. Some families may find they must contribute some funding towards a private school education, which can often be paid in installments. Article edited by  Stacy Jagodowski

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II

Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought from February 19 to March 26, 1945, during World War II (1939-1945). The American invasion of Iwo Jima came after Allied forces had island-hopped across the Pacific and had conducted successful campaigns in the Solomon, Gilbert, Marshall, and Mariana Islands. Landing on Iwo Jima, American forces encountered much fiercer resistance than expected and the battle became one of the bloodiest of the war in the Pacific.    Forces Commanders Allies Admiral Raymond A. SpruanceMajor General Harry SchmidtVice Admiral Marc Mitscherup to 110,000 men Japanese Lieutenant General Tadamichi KuribayashiColonel Baron Takeichi Nishi23,000 men Background During 1944, the Allies achieved a series of successes as they island-hopped across the Pacific. Driving through the Marshall Islands, American forces captured Kwajalein and Eniwetok before pushing on to the Marianas. Following a victory at the Battle of the Philippine Sea in late June, troops landed on Saipan and Guam and wrested them from the Japanese. That fall saw a decisive victory at the Battle of Leyte Gulf and the opening of a campaign in the Philippines. As a next step, Allied leaders began developing plans for the invasion of Okinawa. Since this operation was intended for April 1945, Allied forces were faced with a brief lull in offensive movements. To fill this, plans were developed for the invasion of Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands. Located approximately mid-way between the Marianas and the Japanese Home Islands, Iwo Jima served as an early warning station for Allied bombing raids and provided a base for Japanese fighters to intercept approaching bombers. Additionally, the island offered a launching point for Japanese air attacks against the new American bases in the Marianas. In assessing the island, American planners also envisioned using it as a forward base for the anticipated invasion of Japan. Planning Dubbed Operation Detachment, planning for capturing Iwo Jima moved forward with Major General Harry Schmidts V Amphibious Corps selected for the landings. Overall command of the invasion was given to Admiral Raymond A. Spruance and the carriers Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitschers Task Force 58 were directed to provide air support. Naval transport and direct support for Schmidts men would be given by Vice Admiral Richmond K. Turners Task Force 51. Allied air attacks and naval bombardments on the island had commenced in June 1944 and had continued through the remainder of the year. It was also scouted by Underwater Demolition Team 15 on June 17, 1944. In early 1945, intelligence indicated that Iwo Jima was relatively lightly defended and given the repeated strikes against it, planners thought it could be captured within a week of the landings (Map). These assessments led Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz to comment,  Well, this will be easy. The Japanese will surrender Iwo Jima without a fight. Japanese Defenses The believed state of Iwo Jimas defenses was a misconception that the islands commander, Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi had worked to encourage. Arriving in June 1944, Kuribayashi utilized  lessons learned during the Battle of Peleliu and focused his attention on building multiple layers of defenses that centered on strong points and bunkers. These featured heavy machine guns and artillery as well as held supplies to allow each strong point to hold out for an extended period. One bunker near Airfield #2 possessed sufficient ammunition, food, and water to resist for three months. Additionally, he elected to employ his limited number of tanks as mobile, camouflaged artillery positions. This overall approach broke from Japanese doctrine which called for establishing defensive lines on the beaches to combat invading troops before they could land in force. As Iwo Jima increasingly came under aerial attack, Kuribayashi commenced focusing on the construction of an elaborate system of interconnected tunnels and bunkers. Connecting the islands strong points, these tunnels were not visible from the air and came as a surprise to the Americans after they landed. Understanding that the battered Imperial Japanese Navy would not be able to offer support during an invasion of the island and that air support would be nonexistent, Kuribayashis goal was to inflict as many casualties as possible before the island fell. To this end, he encouraged his men to kill ten Americans each before dying themselves. Through this he hoped to discourage the Allies from attempting an invasion of Japan. Focusing his efforts on the northern end of the island, over eleven miles of tunnels were constructed, while a separate system honeycombed Mt. Suribachi at the southern end. The Marines Land As a prelude to Operation Detachment, B-24 Liberators from the Marianas pounded Iwo Jima for 74 days. Due to the nature of the Japanese defenses, these air attacks had little effect. Arriving off the island in mid-February, the invasion force took up positions. The American planned called for the 4th and 5th Marine Divisions to go ashore on Iwo Jimas southeastern beaches with the goal of capturing Mt. Suribachi and the southern airfield on the first day. At 2:00 AM on February 19, the pre-invasion bombardment commenced, supported by bombers. Heading towards the beach, the first wave of Marines landed at 8:59 AM and initially met little resistance. Sending patrols off the beach, they soon encountered Kuribayashis bunker system. Quickly coming under heavy fire from the bunkers and gun emplacements on Mt. Suribachi, the Marines began to take heavy losses. The situation was further complicated by the islands volcanic ash soil which prevented the digging of foxholes. Pushing Inland The Marines also found that clearing a bunker did not put it out of action as Japanese soldiers would use the tunnel network to make it operational again. This practice would be common during the battle and led to many casualties when Marines believed they were in a secure area. Utilizing naval gunfire, close air support, and arriving armored units, the Marines were slowly able to fight their way off the beach though losses remained high. Among those killed was Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone who had won the Medal of Honor three years earlier at Guadalcanal.   Around 10:35 AM, a force of Marines led by Colonel  Harry B. Liversedge succeeded in reaching the islands western shore and cutting off Mt. Suribachi. Under heavy fire from from the heights, efforts were made over the next few days to neutralize the Japanese on the mountain. This culminated with American forces reaching the summit on February 23 and the raising of the flag atop the summit. Grinding on to Victory As fighting raged for the mountain, other Marine units battled their way north past the southern airfield. Easily shifting troops through the tunnel network, Kuribayashi inflicted increasingly severe losses on the attackers. As American forces advanced, a key weapon proved to be flamethrower-equipped M4A3R3 Sherman tanks which were difficult to destroy and efficient at clearing bunkers. Efforts were also supported by the liberal use of close air support. This was initially provided by the Mitschers carriers and later transitioned to the P-51 Mustangs of the 15th Fighter Group after their arrival on March 6. Fighting to the last man, the Japanese made superb use of the terrain and their tunnel network, constantly popping out to surprise the Marines. Continuing to push north, the Marines encountered fierce resistance at the Motoyama Plateau and nearby Hill 382 during which the fighting bogged down. A similar situation developed to the west at Hill 362 which was riddled with tunnels. With the advance halted and casualties mounting, Marine commanders began changing tactics to combat the nature of the Japanese defenses. These include assaulting without preliminary bombardments and night attacks. Final Efforts By March 16, after weeks of brutal fighting, the island was declared secure. Despite this proclamation, the 5th Marine Division was still fighting to take Kuribayashis final stronghold at the northwest tip of the island. On March 21, they succeeded in destroying the Japanese command post and three days later closed the remaining tunnel entrances in the area. Though it appeared that the island was fully secured, 300 Japanese launched a final assault near Airfield No. 2 in the middle of the island on the night of March 25. Appearing behind the American lines, this force was ultimately contained and defeated by a mixed group of Army pilots, Seabees, engineers, and Marines. There is some speculation that Kuribayashi personally led this final attack. Aftermath Japanese losses in the fighting for Iwo Jima are subject to debate with numbers ranging from 17,845 killed to as high as 21,570. During the fighting only 216 Japanese soldiers were captured. When the island was declared secured again on March 26, approximately 3,000 Japanese remained alive in the tunnel system. While some carried on limited resistance or committed ritual suicide, others emerged to scavenge for food. US Army forces reported in June that they had captured an additional 867 prisoners and killed 1,602. The final two Japanese soldiers to surrender were Yamakage Kufuku and Matsudo Linsoki who lasted until 1951. American losses for Operation Detachment were a staggering 6,821 killed/missing and 19,217 wounded. The fighting for Iwo Jima was the one battle in which American forces sustained a greater number of total casualties than the Japanese. In the course of the struggle for the island, twenty-seven Medals of Honor were awarded, fourteen posthumously. A bloody victory, Iwo Jima provided valuable lessons for the upcoming Okinawa campaign. In addition, the island fulfilled its role as a waypoint to Japan for American bombers. During the final months of the war, 2,251 B-29 Superfortress landings occurred on the island. Due to heavy cost to take the island, the campaign was immediately subjected to intense scrutiny in the military and press.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

BSBWOR501B Manage personal work priorities and professional Assignment

BSBWOR501B Manage personal work priorities and professional development - Assignment Example In addition, these officers also work together with other sales employees in an effort to improve the sales of the organization. Finally, a marketing officer obtains data and makes reports about the marketing strategies of the company. According to Marshall, (2013, p. 44), marketing officers must have adequate knowledge base, skills and experience in marketing for them to succeed in the field. The minimum education qualifications required for one to succeed in marketing is a bachelor’s degree in marketing. In addition, one must possess skills and experience such as skills in research, ability to do analysis and interpretation of information and skills in report writing. One should also have both written and oral communication skills. The marketing officer should have experience in teamwork and possess creative and innovative minds in order to come up with competitive marketing strategies. The personal goals were set based on the organization and team goals. This enables the marketing officer to maintain teamwork cooperation and also achieve the overall organization goals. The knowledge obtained from organization’s training on goal setting was used to set the objectives. In addition, policies of the organization provided direction in planning and achieving the goals in marketing. Finally, according to Mathur, (2006, p. 56), the personal experience and possession of strong power and skills in persuading people to accept things helps in achieving the goals especially increasing the sales volume. Another motivation for setting goals involves the need for personal performance management and the need to offer role modelling to others. This includes performance appraisal to determine achievement of marketing standards. The goals also help in guiding through the work of marketing to avoid wastage of time. The activities are carried out systematically, that is, allocating timeframe for each

Friday, November 1, 2019

Nonconsequensialists and Consequensialists Essay

Nonconsequensialists and Consequensialists - Essay Example As in consequentialism, a consequentialist may argue that lying is wrong, and the reason he or she will gave is that it generates negative consequences or the results. But a consequentialist might allow this in some foreseeable consequences, and where lie is good enough, so people can lie in those situations. On the other hand a deontologist may argue that lying is always wrong, no matter what good it can bring to the liar. They will never allow this in any situation or the circumstances. G. E. M Anscombe, in 1958, came up with the term consequentilism first time in her essay "Modern Moral Philosophy". In her essay, she expressed what she thought as the major error of some moral theories, for example by Mill and Sidgwick. 1 The term, consequentilism became popular further and many authors used it in their writings. The ethical theories are sorted into two groups, one theory is regarding the wrong and right actions, and this is called consequentialist theory. The other theory is non-consequentialist theory; utilitarianism is an example of consequentialist theory. And that judgment in consequentiatlist theory is done by the rightness ad wrongness of any action and also the results of those acts. ... On the other hand, the non-consequentialist theory in ethics concludes the right or wrong acts not on the base of consequences but on their properties and attributes. Libertarians support this theory and believe that people should be free to do whatever they want to. If someone's action is hurting or harming other people than it does not mean that people should stop doing things on their own will. They should do what ever they want to but they should respect the privacy and freedom of others too, but should not hold back their actions only because of people. The major difference between consequentialist and non-consequentialist is the judgment of action and in consequentialist theory; the final conclusion is based upon the consequences and results whereas in non-consequentialists theory, it checks the nature of the action. What happens normally is that non-consequentialists limit the scope and range of facts, which should be reviewed to perform the right action. Non-consequentialists try to ignore the consequences, which is not actually possible and can create a lot of problems in future. So the non-consequentialist theory limits the range of considerations that could be used in determining the rightness and wrongness of any action. Though it is proved psychologically that the acts by people are limited because of many constraints, for example, time limit, finite processing capacities etc. So non-consequentialist ethics is suitable for the decision procedures, where the empirical restrictions are rationality talked about. Many philosophers agreed that non-consequentialist theory can be successful only after the proper judgment of